The Norwegian Earth System Model: NorESM; basic development, validation, scientific analyses, and climate scenarios
The Norwegian Earth System Model: NorESM; basic development, validation, scientific analyses, and climate scenarios
Editor(s): GMD topic editors | Coordinators: M. Bentsen and M. Schulz
The Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) is a global, coupled model system for the physical climate system, which can be run with various degrees of interactions with biogeochemical processes in the earth system. NorESM is developed as a nationally coordinated effort in Norway, but important parts of the model code are imported from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and Community Earth System Model (CESM) projects operated at NCAR on behalf of UCAR in the USA.

The NorESM publications in this special issue address a range of NorESM versions. The first set of model versions delivered results to CMIP5. NorESM1-M is run concentration-driven for greenhouse gases (GHGs) and is based on CCSM4 (released 1 April 2010), while NorESM1-ME can be run emission-driven for GHGs and is based on CESM1 (released 1 July 2010). A low-resolution version, NorESM1-L, was developed mainly for paleo-climate simulations. New versions of NorESM are underway: NorESM1.X, where X indicates updates of the NorESM1 versions, and NorESM2, which is intended to contribute to CMIP6. Further versions will follow thereafter. NorESM includes the following: its own developed code for chemistry–aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions (CAM-Oslo) and enhancements of the dynamics/physics of the atmospheric module; alternative parameterization of surface turbulent fluxes; an isopycnic coordinate ocean model originating from the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) but developed further; and the HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle (HAMOCC) model developed at the Max Plank Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg and adapted to the isopycnic coordinate ocean model framework.

Papers developed for full validation (CMIP-DECK) or more specific evaluation of the NorESM versions and further developments of these are welcome in this special issue. Authors intending to contribute papers to this special issue should contact the coordinators (Mats Bentsen and Michael Schulz), e.g., to ensure the consistency of version names and numbers.

Download citations of all papers

04 Jan 2024
Improving subseasonal forecast skill in the Norwegian Climate Prediction Model using soil moisture data assimilation
Akhilesh Sivaraman Nair, François Counillon, and Noel Keenlyside
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2023-217,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2023-217, 2024
Preprint under review for GMD (discussion: final response, 8 comments)
Short summary
19 Nov 2021
NorCPM1 and its contribution to CMIP6 DCPP
Ingo Bethke, Yiguo Wang, François Counillon, Noel Keenlyside, Madlen Kimmritz, Filippa Fransner, Annette Samuelsen, Helene Langehaug, Lea Svendsen, Ping-Gin Chiu, Leilane Passos, Mats Bentsen, Chuncheng Guo, Alok Gupta, Jerry Tjiputra, Alf Kirkevåg, Dirk Olivié, Øyvind Seland, Julie Solsvik Vågane, Yuanchao Fan, and Tor Eldevik
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7073–7116, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-7073-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-7073-2021, 2021
Short summary
04 Jun 2021
Implementing a sectional scheme for early aerosol growth from new particle formation in the Norwegian Earth System Model v2: comparison to observations and climate impacts
Sara M. Blichner, Moa K. Sporre, Risto Makkonen, and Terje K. Berntsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3335–3359, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-3335-2021,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-3335-2021, 2021
Short summary
04 Dec 2020
Overview of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) and key climate response of CMIP6 DECK, historical, and scenario simulations
Øyvind Seland, Mats Bentsen, Dirk Olivié, Thomas Toniazzo, Ada Gjermundsen, Lise Seland Graff, Jens Boldingh Debernard, Alok Kumar Gupta, Yan-Chun He, Alf Kirkevåg, Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, Kjetil Schanke Aas, Ingo Bethke, Yuanchao Fan, Jan Griesfeller, Alf Grini, Chuncheng Guo, Mehmet Ilicak, Inger Helene Hafsahl Karset, Oskar Landgren, Johan Liakka, Kine Onsum Moseid, Aleksi Nummelin, Clemens Spensberger, Hui Tang, Zhongshi Zhang, Christoph Heinze, Trond Iversen, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6165–6200, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-6165-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-6165-2020, 2020
Short summary
26 May 2020
Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2)
Jerry F. Tjiputra, Jörg Schwinger, Mats Bentsen, Anne L. Morée, Shuang Gao, Ingo Bethke, Christoph Heinze, Nadine Goris, Alok Gupta, Yan-Chun He, Dirk Olivié, Øyvind Seland, and Michael Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2393–2431, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-2393-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-2393-2020, 2020
Short summary
21 Feb 2020
Enforcing conservation of axial angular momentum in the atmospheric general circulation model CAM6
Thomas Toniazzo, Mats Bentsen, Cheryl Craig, Brian E. Eaton, Jim Edwards, Steve Goldhaber, Christiane Jablonowski, and Peter H. Lauritzen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 685–705, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-685-2020,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-13-685-2020, 2020
Short summary
21 Jan 2019
Description and evaluation of NorESM1-F: a fast version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM)
Chuncheng Guo, Mats Bentsen, Ingo Bethke, Mehmet Ilicak, Jerry Tjiputra, Thomas Toniazzo, Jörg Schwinger, and Odd Helge Otterå
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 343–362, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-343-2019,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-12-343-2019, 2019
Short summary
01 Oct 2018
A production-tagged aerosol module for Earth system models, OsloAero5.3 – extensions and updates for CAM5.3-Oslo
Alf Kirkevåg, Alf Grini, Dirk Olivié, Øyvind Seland, Kari Alterskjær, Matthias Hummel, Inger H. H. Karset, Anna Lewinschal, Xiaohong Liu, Risto Makkonen, Ingo Bethke, Jan Griesfeller, Michael Schulz, and Trond Iversen
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3945–3982, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-3945-2018,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-3945-2018, 2018
Short summary
11 Nov 2016
The offline Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART–NorESM/CAM (v1): model description and comparisons with the online NorESM transport scheme and with the reference FLEXPART model
Massimo Cassiani, Andreas Stohl, Dirk Olivié, Øyvind Seland, Ingo Bethke, Ignacio Pisso, and Trond Iversen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4029–4048, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-4029-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-4029-2016, 2016
Short summary
02 Aug 2016
Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1)
Jörg Schwinger, Nadine Goris, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Iris Kriest, Mats Bentsen, Ingo Bethke, Mehmet Ilicak, Karen M. Assmann, and Christoph Heinze
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2589–2622, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2589-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2589-2016, 2016
Short summary
07 Jul 2016
Northern Hemisphere storminess in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M)
Erlend M. Knudsen and John E. Walsh
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2335–2355, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2335-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-2335-2016, 2016
Short summary
24 May 2013
The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 1: Description and basic evaluation of the physical climate
M. Bentsen, I. Bethke, J. B. Debernard, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, Ø. Seland, H. Drange, C. Roelandt, I. A. Seierstad, C. Hoose, and J. E. Kristjánsson
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 687–720, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-687-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-687-2013, 2013
22 Mar 2013
The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 2: Climate response and scenario projections
T. Iversen, M. Bentsen, I. Bethke, J. B. Debernard, A. Kirkevåg, Ø. Seland, H. Drange, J. E. Kristjansson, I. Medhaug, M. Sand, and I. A. Seierstad
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 389–415, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-389-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-389-2013, 2013
04 Mar 2013
Evaluation of the carbon cycle components in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM)
J. F. Tjiputra, C. Roelandt, M. Bentsen, D. M. Lawrence, T. Lorentzen, J. Schwinger, Ø. Seland, and C. Heinze
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 301–325, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-301-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-301-2013, 2013
08 Feb 2013
Aerosol–climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model – NorESM1-M
A. Kirkevåg, T. Iversen, Ø. Seland, C. Hoose, J. E. Kristjánsson, H. Struthers, A. M. L. Ekman, S. Ghan, J. Griesfeller, E. D. Nilsson, and M. Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 207–244, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-207-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-207-2013, 2013
21 Aug 2012
Pre-industrial and mid-Pliocene simulations with NorESM-L: AGCM simulations
Z. Zhang and Q. Yan
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1033–1043, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1033-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1033-2012, 2012
25 Apr 2012
Pre-industrial and mid-Pliocene simulations with NorESM-L
Z. S. Zhang, K. Nisancioglu, M. Bentsen, J. Tjiputra, I. Bethke, Q. Yan, B. Risebrobakken, C. Andersson, and E. Jansen
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 523–533, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-523-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-523-2012, 2012
CC BY 4.0