Articles | Volume 4, issue 1
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 33–45, 2011

Special issue: Climate model simulations of the last millennium

Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 33–45, 2011

Model experiment description paper 21 Jan 2011

Model experiment description paper | 21 Jan 2011

Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)

G. A. Schmidt1, J. H. Jungclaus2, C. M. Ammann3, E. Bard4, P. Braconnot5, T. J. Crowley6, G. Delaygue7, F. Joos8,15, N. A. Krivova9, R. Muscheler10, B. L. Otto-Bliesner3, J. Pongratz11, D. T. Shindell1, S. K. Solanki9,12, F. Steinhilber13, and L. E. A. Vieira14 G. A. Schmidt et al.
  • 1NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University, New York, USA
  • 2Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 3National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 4CEREGE, Université Aix-Marseille III/CNRS/IRD/Collège de France, Europôle de l'Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04, France
  • 5Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif Sur Yvette, France
  • 6School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  • 7Université Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I/CNRS, LGGE, 54 rue Molière, St-Martin-d'Hères, France
  • 8Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
  • 9Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany
  • 10Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362 Lund, Sweden
  • 11Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Global Ecology, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  • 12School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701, Korea
  • 13Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 14Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement et de l'Espace and Université d'Orléans, 3A, Avenue de la Recherche, 45071 Orléans cedex 2, France
  • 15Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland

Abstract. Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850–1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.