Articles | Volume 16, issue 2
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The AirGAM 2022r1 air quality trend and prediction model
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
M. Karl, N. Castell, D. Simpson, S. Solberg, J. Starrfelt, T. Svendby, S.-E. Walker, and R. F. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8533–8557,
Cynthia H. Whaley, Kathy S. Law, Jens Liengaard Hjorth, Henrik Skov, Stephen R. Arnold, Joakim Langner, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Garance Bergeron, Ilann Bourgeois, Jesper H. Christensen, Rong-You Chien, Makoto Deushi, Xinyi Dong, Peter Effertz, Gregory Faluvegi, Mark Flanner, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Greg Huey, Ulas Im, Rigel Kivi, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Jeff Peischl, David A. Plummer, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Tom Ryerson, Ragnhild Skeie, Sverre Solberg, Manu A. Thomas, Chelsea Thompson, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana Tsyro, Steven T. Turnock, Knut von Salzen, and David W. Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 637–661,Short summary
This study summarizes recent research on ozone in the Arctic, a sensitive and rapidly warming region. We find that the seasonal cycles of near-surface atmospheric ozone are variable depending on whether they are near the coast, inland, or at high altitude. Several global model simulations were evaluated, and we found that because models lack some of the ozone chemistry that is important for the coastal Arctic locations, they do not accurately simulate ozone there.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizzetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3321–3369,Short summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site and one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long-term time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic and global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Claire Lamotte, Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Martin Cussac, Paul David Hamer, Nicolas Theys, and Philipp Schneider
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11379–11404,Short summary
Improvements are made in a global chemical transfer model by considering a new volcanic SO2 emissions inventory, with more volcanoes referenced and more information on the altitude of injection. Better constraining volcanic emissions with this inventory improves the global, but mostly local, tropospheric sulfur composition. The tropospheric sulfur budget shows a nonlinearity to the volcanic contribution, especially to the sulfate aerosol burden and sulfur wet deposition.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Matthias Karl, Sam-Erik Walker, Sverre Solberg, and Martin O. P. Ramacher
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3357–3399,Short summary
A large part of the population living in cities is exposed to ozone levels above the EU air quality target value. The CityChem extension of the urban air quality model EPISODE enables a detailed treatment of the atmospheric chemistry in urban areas and near-field dispersion close to industrial stacks and in street canyons. The application of the model in the city of Hamburg (Germany) shows good performance for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter at air quality monitoring stations.
Noelia Otero, Jana Sillmann, Kathleen A. Mar, Henning W. Rust, Sverre Solberg, Camilla Andersson, Magnuz Engardt, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cournelius Cuvelier, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Martijn Schaap, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Mario Adani, Massimo D'Isidoro, María-Teresa Pay, Mark Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Peter Wind, Narendra Ojha, Valentin Raffort, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12269–12288,Short summary
This paper evaluates the capability of air-quality models to capture the observed relationship between surface ozone concentrations and meteorology over Europe. The air-quality models tended to overestimate the influence of maximum temperature and surface solar radiation. None of the air-quality models captured the strength of the observed relationship between ozone and relative humidity appropriately, underestimating the effect of relative humidity, a key factor in the ozone removal processes.
P. Schneider, W. A. Lahoz, and R. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1205–1220,Short summary
We use a homogeneous 10-year record of satellite data to study recent trends in NO2 over the world's major urban agglomerations. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends, with moderate but consistent reductions in NO2 throughout most developed countries and rapid increases of up to 15 % per year over many sites in Asia, Africa, and South America. We also show links between urban NO2 trends and economic as well as demographic factors, and how the latter drive regional differences.
M. Karl, N. Castell, D. Simpson, S. Solberg, J. Starrfelt, T. Svendby, S.-E. Walker, and R. F. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8533–8557,
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Qian Shu, Sergey L. Napelenok, William T. Hutzell, Kirk R. Baker, Barron H. Henderson, Benjamin N. Murphy, and Christian Hogrefe
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2303–2322,Short summary
Source attribution methods are generally used to determine culpability of precursor emission sources to ambient pollutant concentrations. However, source attribution of secondarily formed pollutants such as ozone and its precursors cannot be explicitly measured, making evaluation of source apportionment methods challenging. In this study, multiple apportionment approach comparisons show common features but still reveal wide variations in predicted sector contribution and species dependency.
Rüdiger Brecht, Lucie Bakels, Alex Bihlo, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2181–2192,Short summary
We use neural-network-based single-image super-resolution to improve the upscaling of meteorological wind fields to be used for particle dispersion models. This deep-learning-based methodology improves the standard linear interpolation typically used in particle dispersion models. The improvement of wind fields leads to substantial improvement in the computed trajectories of the particles.
Alvaro Criado, Jan Mateu Armengol, Hervé Petetin, Daniel Rodriguez-Rey, Jaime Benavides, Marc Guevara, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Albert Soret, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2193–2213,Short summary
This work aims to derive and evaluate a general statistical post-processing tool specifically designed for the street scale that can be applied to any urban air quality system. Our data fusion methodology corrects NO2 fields based on continuous hourly observations and experimental campaigns. This study enables us to obtain exceedance probability maps of air quality standards. In 2019, 13 % of the Barcelona area had a 70 % or higher probability of exceeding the annual legal NO2 limit of 40 µg/m3.
Liang Wang, Bingcheng Wan, Shaohui Zhou, Haofei Sun, and Zhiqiu Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2167–2179,Short summary
The past 24 h TC trajectories and meteorological field data were used to forecast TC tracks in the northwestern Pacific from hours 6–72 based on GRU_CNN, which we proposed in this paper and which has better prediction results than traditional single deep-learning methods. The historical steering flow of cyclones has a significant effect on improving the accuracy of short-term forecasting, while, in long-term forecasting, the SST and geopotential height will have a particular impact.
Thomas Berkemeier, Matteo Krüger, Aryeh Feinberg, Marcel Müller, Ulrich Pöschl, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2037–2054,Short summary
Kinetic multi-layer models (KMs) successfully describe heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. In applications requiring repeated execution, however, these models can be too expensive. We trained machine learning surrogate models on output of the model KM-SUB and achieved high correlations. The surrogate models run orders of magnitude faster, which suggests potential applicability in global optimization tasks and as sub-modules in large-scale atmospheric models.
Elena Fillola, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, Alistair Manning, Simon O'Doherty, and Matt Rigby
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1997–2009,Short summary
Lagrangian particle dispersion models are used extensively for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using atmospheric observations. However, these models do not scale well as data volumes increase. Here, we develop a proof-of-concept machine learning emulator that can produce outputs similar to those of the dispersion model, but 50 000 times faster, using only meteorological inputs. This works demonstrates the potential of machine learning to accelerate GHG estimations across the globe.
Maria J. Chinita, Mikael Witte, Marcin J. Kurowski, Joao Teixeira, Kay Suselj, Georgios Matheou, and Peter Bogenschutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1909–1924,Short summary
Low clouds are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate prediction. In this paper, we introduce the first version of the unified turbulence and shallow convection parameterization named SHOC+MF developed to improve the representation of shallow cumulus clouds in the Simple Cloud-Resolving E3SM Atmosphere Model (SCREAM). Here, we also show promising preliminary results in a single-column model framework for two benchmark cases of shallow cumulus convection.
Kun Wang, Chao Gao, Kai Wu, Kaiyun Liu, Haofan Wang, Mo Dan, Xiaohui Ji, and Qingqing Tong
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1961–1973,Short summary
This study establishes an easy-to-use and integrated framework for a model-ready emission inventory for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–Air Quality Numerical Model (AQM). A free tool called the ISAT (Inventory Spatial Allocation Tool) was developed based on this framework. ISAT helps users complete the workflow from the WRF nested-domain configuration to a model-ready emission inventory for AQM with a regional emission inventory and a shapefile for the target region.
Jagat S. H. Bisht, Prabir K. Patra, Masayuki Takigawa, Takashi Sekiya, Yugo Kanaya, Naoko Saitoh, and Kazuyuki Miyazaki
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1823–1838,Short summary
In this study, we estimated CH4 fluxes using an advanced 4D-LETKF method. The system was tested and optimized using observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs), where a known surface emission distribution is retrieved from synthetic observations. The availability of satellite measurements has increased, and there are still many missions focused on greenhouse gas observations that have not yet launched. The technique being referred to has the potential to improve estimates of CH4 fluxes.
Ruizi Shi and Fanghua Xu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1839–1856,Short summary
Based on the Gaussian quadrature method, a fast algorithm of sea-spray-mediated heat flux is developed. Compared with the widely used single-radius algorithm, the new fast algorithm shows a better agreement with the full spectrum integral of spray flux. The new fast algorithm is evaluated in a coupled modeling system, and the simulations of sea surface temperature, wind speed and wave height are improved. Thereby, the new fast algorithm has great potential to be used in coupled modeling systems.
Forwood Wiser, Bryan K. Place, Siddhartha Sen, Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin Yang, Daniel M. Westervelt, Daven K. Henze, Arlene M. Fiore, and V. Faye McNeill
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1801–1821,Short summary
We developed a reduced model of atmospheric isoprene oxidation, AMORE-Isoprene 1.0. It was created using a new Automated Model Reduction (AMORE) method designed to simplify complex chemical mechanisms with minimal manual adjustments to the output. AMORE-Isoprene 1.0 has improved accuracy and similar size to other reduced isoprene mechanisms. When included in the CRACMM mechanism, it improved the accuracy of EPA’s CMAQ model predictions for the northeastern USA compared to observations.
Jonathan D. Labriola, Jeremy A. Gibbs, and Louis J. Wicker
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1779–1799,Short summary
Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are simulated case studies used to understand how different assimilated weather observations impact forecast skill. This study introduces the methods used to create an OSSE for a tornadic quasi-linear convective system event. These steps provide an opportunity to simulate a realistic high-impact weather event and can be used to encourage a more diverse set of OSSEs.
Mike Bush, Ian Boutle, John Edwards, Anke Finnenkoetter, Charmaine Franklin, Kirsty Hanley, Aravindakshan Jayakumar, Huw Lewis, Adrian Lock, Marion Mittermaier, Saji Mohandas, Rachel North, Aurore Porson, Belinda Roux, Stuart Webster, and Mark Weeks
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1713–1734,Short summary
Building on the baseline of RAL1, the RAL2 science configuration is used for regional modelling around the UM partnership and in operations at the Met Office. RAL2 has been tested in different parts of the world including Australia, India and the UK. RAL2 increases medium and low cloud amounts in the mid-latitudes compared to RAL1, leading to improved cloud forecasts and a reduced diurnal cycle of screen temperature. There is also a reduction in the frequency of heavier precipitation rates.
Chuanhua Ren, Xin Huang, Tengyu Liu, Yu Song, Zhang Wen, Xuejun Liu, Aijun Ding, and Tong Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1641–1659,Short summary
Ammonia in the atmosphere has wide impacts on the ecological environment and air quality, and its emission from soil volatilization is highly sensitive to meteorology, making it challenging to be well captured in models. We developed a dynamic emission model capable of calculating ammonia emission interactively with meteorological and soil conditions. Such a coupling of soil emission with meteorology provides a better understanding of ammonia emission and its contribution to atmospheric aerosol.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Alexei Rozanov, and John P. Burrows
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1511–1536,Short summary
This paper summarizes recent developments of aerosol, cloud and surface reflectance databases and models in the framework of the software package SCIATRAN. These updates and developments extend the capabilities of the radiative transfer modeling, especially by accounting for different kinds of vertical inhomogeneties. Vertically inhomogeneous clouds and different aerosol types can be easily accounted for within SCIATRAN (V4.6). The widely used surface models and databases are now available.
Adrian Rojas-Campos, Michael Langguth, Martin Wittenbrink, and Gordon Pipa
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1467–1480,Short summary
Our paper presents an alternative approach for generating high-resolution precipitation maps based on the nonlinear combination of the complete set of variables of the numerical weather predictions. This process combines the super-resolution task with the bias correction in a single step, generating high-resolution corrected precipitation maps with a lead time of 3 h. We used using deep learning algorithms to combine the input information and increase the accuracy of the precipitation maps.
Robin N. Thor, Mariano Mertens, Sigrun Matthes, Mattia Righi, Johannes Hendricks, Sabine Brinkop, Phoebe Graf, Volker Grewe, Patrick Jöckel, and Steven Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1459–1466,Short summary
We report on an inconsistency in the latitudinal distribution of aviation emissions between two versions of a data product which is widely used by researchers. From the available documentation, we do not expect such an inconsistency. We run a chemistry–climate model to compute the effect of the inconsistency in emissions on atmospheric chemistry and radiation and find that the radiative forcing associated with aviation ozone is 7.6 % higher when using the less recent version of the data.
Stefano Della Fera, Federico Fabiano, Piera Raspollini, Marco Ridolfi, Ugo Cortesi, Flavio Barbara, and Jost von Hardenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1379–1394,Short summary
The long-term comparison between observed and simulated outgoing longwave radiances represents a strict test to evaluate climate model performance. In this work, 9 years of synthetic spectrally resolved radiances, simulated online on the basis of the atmospheric fields predicted by the EC-Earth global climate model (v3.3.3) in clear-sky conditions, are compared to IASI spectral radiance climatology in order to detect model biases in temperature and humidity at different atmospheric levels.
Marine Bonazzola, Hélène Chepfer, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Quaas, David M. Winker, Artem Feofilov, and Nick Schutgens
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1359–1377,Short summary
Aerosol has a large impact on climate. Using a lidar aerosol simulator ensures consistent comparisons between modeled and observed aerosol. We present a lidar aerosol simulator that applies a cloud masking and an aerosol detection threshold. We estimate the lidar signals that would be observed at 532 nm by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization overflying the atmosphere predicted by a climate model. Our comparison at the seasonal timescale shows a discrepancy in the Southern Ocean.
Michael S. Walters and David C. Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1179–1190,Short summary
A typical numerical simulation that associates with a large amount of input and output data, applying popular compression software, gzip or bzip2, on data is one good way to mitigate data storage burden. This article proposes a simple technique to alter input, output, or input and output by keeping a specific number of significant digits in data and demonstrates an enhancement in compression efficiency on the altered data but maintains similar statistical performance of the numerical simulation.
Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, and Romain Pennel
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1119–1127,Short summary
Large or even
giantparticles of mineral dust exist in the atmosphere but, so far, solving an non-linear equation was needed to calculate the speed at which they fall in the atmosphere. The model we present, AerSett v1.0 (AERosol SETTling version 1.0), provides a new and simple way of calculating their free-fall velocity in the atmosphere, which will be useful to anyone trying to understand and represent adequately the transport of giant dust particles by the wind.
Yen-Sen Lu, Garrett H. Good, and Hendrik Elbern
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1083–1104,Short summary
The Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model consists of many parameters and options that can be adapted to different conditions. This expansive sensitivity study uses a large-scale simulation system to determine the most suitable options for predicting cloud cover in Europe for deterministic and probabilistic weather predictions for day-ahead forecasting simulations.
Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Marc Bocquet, Olivier Saunier, and Yelva Roustan
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1039–1052,Short summary
When radionuclides are released into the atmosphere, the assessment of the consequences depends on the evaluation of the magnitude and temporal evolution of the release, which can be highly variable as in the case of Fukushima Daiichi. Here, we propose Bayesian inverse modelling methods and the reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, which allows one to evaluate the temporal variability of the release and to integrate different types of information in the source reconstruction.
Xiaohan Li, Yi Zhang, Xindong Peng, Baiquan Zhou, Jian Li, and Yiming Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The weather and climate physics suites used in GRIST-A22.7.28 are compared using single column modeling. The source of their discrepancies in terms of modeling cloud and precipitation is explored. Convective parameterization is found to be a key factor responsible for the differences. The two suites also have intrinsic differences in the interaction between microphysics and other processes, resulting in different cloud features and time step sensitivities.
Phuc Thi Minh Ha, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Benjamin Schreiner, Klaus Pfeilsticker, and Kengo Sudo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 927–960,Short summary
HONO affects tropospheric oxidizing capacity; thus, it is implemented into the chemistry–climate model CHASER. The model substantially underpredicts daytime HONO, while nitrate photolysis on surfaces can supplement the daytime HONO budget. Current HONO chemistry predicts reductions of 20.4 % for global tropospheric NOx, 40–67 % for OH, and 30–45 % for O3 in the summer North Pacific. In contrast, OH and O3 winter levels in China are greatly enhanced.
Ryan Vella, Matthew Forrest, Jos Lelieveld, and Holger Tost
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 885–906,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released by vegetation and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry and aerosol formation. Non-interacting vegetation constrains the majority of numerical models used to estimate global BVOC emissions, and thus, the effects of changing vegetation on emissions are not addressed. In this work, we replace the offline vegetation with dynamic vegetation states by linking a chemistry–climate model with a global dynamic vegetation model.
Danny McCulloch, Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan Mayne, Matthew Bate, James Manners, Ian Boutle, Benjamin Drummond, and Kristzian Kohary
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 621–657,Short summary
We present results from the Met Office Unified Model (UM) to study the dry Martian climate. We describe our model set-up conditions and run two scenarios, with radiatively active/inactive dust. We compare both scenarios to results from an existing Mars climate model, the planetary climate model. We find good agreement in winds and air temperatures, but dust amounts differ between models. This study highlights the importance of using the UM for future Mars research.
Bianca Adler, James M. Wilczak, Jaymes Kenyon, Laura Bianco, Irina V. Djalalova, Joseph B. Olson, and David D. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 597–619,Short summary
Rapid changes in wind speed make the integration of wind energy produced during persistent orographic cold-air pools difficult to integrate into the electrical grid. By evaluating three versions of NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, we demonstrate how model developments targeted during the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project improve the forecast of a persistent cold-air pool event.
John Douros, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Augustin Colette, and Pepijn Veefkind
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 509–534,Short summary
We focus on the challenges associated with comparing atmospheric composition models with satellite products such as tropospheric NO2 columns. The aim is to highlight the methodological difficulties and propose sound ways of doing such comparisons. Building on the comparisons, a new satellite product is proposed and made available, which takes advantage of higher-resolution, regional atmospheric modelling to improve estimates of troposheric NO2 columns over Europe.
Catalina Poraicu, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Dominique Fonteyn, Frederik Tack, Felix Deutsch, Quentin Laffineur, Roeland Van Malderen, and Nele Veldeman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 479–508,Short summary
High-resolution WRF-Chem simulations are conducted over Antwerp, Belgium, in June 2019 and evaluated using meteorological data and in situ, airborne, and spaceborne NO2 measurements. An intercomparison of model, aircraft, and TROPOMI NO2 columns is conducted to characterize biases in versions 1.3.1 and 2.3.1 of the satellite product. A mass balance method is implemented to provide improved emissions for simulating NO2 distribution over the study area.
Daan R. Scheepens, Irene Schicker, Kateřina Hlaváčková-Schindler, and Claudia Plant
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 251–270,Short summary
The production of wind energy is increasing rapidly and relies heavily on atmospheric conditions. To ensure power grid stability, accurate predictions of wind speed are needed, especially in the short range and for extreme wind speed ranges. In this work, we demonstrate the forecasting skills of a data-driven deep learning model with model adaptations to suit higher wind speed ranges. The resulting model can be applied to other data and parameters, too, to improve nowcasting predictions.
Koichi Sakaguchi, L. Ruby Leung, Colin M. Zarzycki, Jihyeon Jang, Seth McGinnis, Bryce E. Harrop, William C. Skamarock, Andrew Gettelman, Chun Zhao, William J. Gutowski, Stephen Leak, and Linda Mearns
We document details of the regional climate downscaling dataset produced by a global variable-resolution model. The experiment is unique for its following a standard protocol designed for coordinated experiments of regional models. Negligible influence of post-processing on statistical analysis, importance of simulation quality outside of the target region, and computational challenges that our model code faced under rapidly changing super computer systems are illustrated.
Peter J. M. Bosman and Maarten C. Krol
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 47–74,Short summary
We describe an inverse modelling framework constructed around a simple model for the atmospheric boundary layer. This framework can be fed with various observation types to study the boundary layer and land–atmosphere exchange. With this framework, it is possible to estimate model parameters and the associated uncertainties. Some of these parameters are difficult to obtain directly by observations. An example application for a grassland in the Netherlands is included.
Sudipta Ghosh, Sagnik Dey, Sushant Das, Nicole Riemer, Graziano Giuliani, Dilip Ganguly, Chandra Venkataraman, Filippo Giorgi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Srikanthan Ramachandran, Thazhathakal Ayyappen Rajesh, Harish Gadhavi, and Atul Kumar Srivastava
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1–15,Short summary
Accurate representation of aerosols in climate models is critical for minimizing the uncertainty in climate projections. Here, we implement region-specific emission fluxes and a more accurate scheme for carbonaceous aerosol ageing processes in a regional climate model (RegCM4) and show that it improves model performance significantly against in situ, reanalysis, and satellite data over the Indian subcontinent. We recommend improving the model performance before using them for climate studies.
Chengzhu Zhang, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Ryan Forsyth, Tom Vo, Shaocheng Xie, Zeshawn Shaheen, Gerald L. Potter, Xylar S. Asay-Davis, Charles S. Zender, Wuyin Lin, Chih-Chieh Chen, Chris R. Terai, Salil Mahajan, Tian Zhou, Karthik Balaguru, Qi Tang, Cheng Tao, Yuying Zhang, Todd Emmenegger, Susannah Burrows, and Paul A. Ullrich
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9031–9056,Short summary
Earth system model (ESM) developers run automated analysis tools on data from candidate models to inform model development. This paper introduces a new Python package, E3SM Diags, that has been developed to support ESM development and use routinely in the development of DOE's Energy Exascale Earth System Model. This tool covers a set of essential diagnostics to evaluate the mean physical climate from simulations, as well as several process-oriented and phenomenon-based evaluation diagnostics.
Walter Hannah and Kyle Pressel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8999–9013,Short summary
A multiscale modeling framework couples two models of the atmosphere that each cover different scale ranges. Traditionally, fluctuations in the small-scale model are not transported by the flow on the large-scale model grid, but this is hypothesized to be responsible for a persistent, unphysical checkerboard pattern. A method is presented to facilitate the transport of these small-scale fluctuations, analogous to how small-scale clouds and turbulence are transported in the real atmosphere.
Reimar Bauer, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Jörn Ungermann, May Bär, Markus Geldenhuys, and Lars Hoffmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8983–8997,Short summary
The Mission Support System (MSS) is an open source software package that has been used for planning flight tracks of scientific aircraft in multiple measurement campaigns during the last decade. Here, we describe the MSS software and its use during the SouthTRAC measurement campaign in 2019. As an example for how the MSS software is used in conjunction with many datasets, we describe the planning of a single flight probing orographic gravity waves propagating up into the lower mesosphere.
Zhizhao Wang, Florian Couvidat, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8957–8982,Short summary
Air quality models need to reliably predict secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) at a reasonable computational cost. Thus, we developed GENOA v1.0, a mechanism reduction algorithm that preserves the accuracy of detailed gas-phase chemical mechanisms for SOA formation, thereby improving the practical use of actual chemistry in SOA models. With GENOA, a near-explicit chemical scheme was reduced to 2 % of its original size and computational time, with an average error of less than 3 %.
Felix Kleinert, Lukas H. Leufen, Aurelia Lupascu, Tim Butler, and Martin G. Schultz
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8913–8930,Short summary
We examine the effects of spatially aggregated upstream information as input for a deep learning model forecasting near-surface ozone levels. Using aggregated data from one upstream sector (45°) improves the forecast by ~ 10 % for 4 prediction days. Three upstream sectors improve the forecasts by ~ 14 % on the first 2 d only. Our results serve as an orientation for other researchers or environmental agencies focusing on pointwise time-series predictions, for example, due to regulatory purposes.
Brian T. Dinkelacker, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8899–8912,Short summary
The performance of a chemical transport model in reproducing PM2.5 concentrations and composition was evaluated at the finest scale using measurements from regulatory sites as well as a network of low-cost monitors. Total PM2.5 mass is reproduced well by the model during the winter when compared to regulatory measurements, but in the summer PM2.5 is underpredicted, mainly due to difficulties in reproducing regional secondary organic aerosol levels.
Shizhang Wang and Xiaoshi Qiao
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8869–8897,Short summary
A local data assimilation scheme (Local DA v1.0) was proposed to leverage the advantage of hybrid covariance, multiscale localization, and parallel computation. The Local DA can perform covariance localization in model space, observation space, or both spaces. The Local DA that used the hybrid covariance and double-space localization produced the lowest analysis and forecast errors among all observing system simulation experiments.
James Weber, James A. King, Katerina Sindelarova, and Maria Val Martin
The emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation (BVOCs) influence atmospheric composition and the contribute to certain gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) which play a role in climate change. BVOC emissions are likely to change in the future due to changes in climate and land use. Therefore, accurate simulation of BVOC emission is important and this study describes an update to the simulation of BVOC emissions in the United Kingdom Earth System Model (UKESM).
Randall V. Martin, Sebastian D. Eastham, Liam Bindle, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Thomas L. Clune, Christoph A. Keller, William Downs, Dandan Zhang, Robert A. Lucchesi, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Robert M. Yantosca, Yanshun Li, Lucas Estrada, William M. Putman, Benjamin M. Auer, Atanas L. Trayanov, Steven Pawson, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8731–8748,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry models must be able to operate both online as components of Earth system models and offline as standalone models. The widely used GEOS-Chem model operates both online and offline, but the classic offline version is not suitable for massively parallel simulations. We describe a new generation of the offline high-performance GEOS-Chem (GCHP) that enables high-resolution simulations on thousands of cores, including on the cloud, with improved access, performance, and accuracy.
Daiwen Kang, Nicholas K. Heath, Robert C. Gilliam, Tanya L. Spero, and Jonathan E. Pleim
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8561–8579,Short summary
A lightning assimilation (LTA) technique implemented in the WRF model's Kain–Fritsch (KF) convective scheme is updated and applied to simulations from regional to hemispheric scales using observed lightning flashes from ground-based lightning detection networks. Different user-toggled options associated with the KF scheme on simulations with and without LTA are assessed. The model's performance is improved significantly by LTA, but it is sensitive to various factors.
Sujeong Lim, Hyeon-Ju Gim, Ebony Lee, Seungyeon Lee, Won Young Lee, Yong Hee Lee, Claudio Cassardo, and Seon Ki Park
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8541–8559,Short summary
The land surface model (LSM) contains various uncertain parameters, which are obtained by the empirical relations reflecting the specific local region and can be a source of uncertainty. To seek the optimal parameter values in the snow-related processes of the Noah LSM over South Korea, we have implemented an optimization algorithm, a micro-genetic algorithm using the observations. As a result, the optimized snow parameters improve snowfall prediction.
Haochen Sun, Jimmy C. H. Fung, Yiang Chen, Zhenning Li, Dehao Yuan, Wanying Chen, and Xingcheng Lu
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8439–8452,Short summary
This study developed a novel deep-learning layer, the broadcasting layer, to build an end-to-end LSTM-based deep-learning model for regional air pollution forecast. By combining the ground observation, WRF-CMAQ simulation, and the broadcasting LSTM deep-learning model, forecast accuracy has been significantly improved when compared to other methods. The broadcasting layer and its variants can also be applied in other research areas to supersede the traditional numerical interpolation methods.
Shunji Kotsuki, Takemasa Miyoshi, Keiichi Kondo, and Roland Potthast
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8325–8348,Short summary
Data assimilation plays an important part in numerical weather prediction (NWP) in terms of combining forecasted states and observations. While data assimilation methods in NWP usually assume the Gaussian error distribution, some variables in the atmosphere, such as precipitation, are known to have non-Gaussian error statistics. This study extended a widely used ensemble data assimilation algorithm to enable the assimilation of more non-Gaussian observations.
Martin Vojta, Andreas Plach, Rona L. Thompson, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8295–8323,Short summary
In light of recent global warming, we aim to improve methods for modeling greenhouse gas emissions in order to support the successful implementation of the Paris Agreement. In this study, we investigate certain aspects of a Bayesian inversion method that uses computer simulations and atmospheric observations to improve estimates of greenhouse gas emissions. We explore method limitations, discuss problems, and suggest improvements.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Jasper F. Kok, Xiaohong Liu, Mingxuan Wu, Danny M. Leung, Douglas S. Hamilton, Louisa K. Emmons, Yue Huang, Neil Sexton, Jun Meng, and Jessica Wan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8181–8219,Short summary
This study advances mineral dust parameterizations in the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM; version 6.1). Efforts include 1) incorporating a more physically based dust emission scheme; 2) updating the dry deposition scheme; and 3) revising the gravitational settling velocity to account for dust asphericity. Substantial improvements achieved with these updates can help accurately quantify dust–climate interactions using CAM, such as the dust-radiation and dust–cloud interactions.
Yan Ji, Bing Gong, Michael Langguth, Amirpasha Mozaffari, and Xiefei Zhi
Formulating the short-term precipitation forecasting as a video prediction task, a novel deep learning architecture CLGAN is proposed in this work. A benchmark data set is newly built for the task, on minute-level precipitation measurements. Our results show that the GAN-component of CLGAN encourages the model to generate predictions sharing statistical properties of observed precipitation, which makes it outperform the baseline in dichotomous and spatial scores for heavy precipitation events.
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We have developed a statistical model for estimating trends in the daily air quality observations of NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5, adjusting for trends and short-term variations in meteorology. The model is general and may also be used for prediction purposes, including forecasting. It has been applied in a recent comprehensive study in Europe. Significant declines are shown for the pollutants from 2005 to 2019, mainly due to reductions in emissions not attributable to changes in meteorology.
We have developed a statistical model for estimating trends in the daily air quality...