Articles | Volume 16, issue 8
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Data fusion uncertainty-enabled methods to map street-scale hourly NO2 in Barcelona: a case study with CALIOPE-Urban v1.0
Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
ICREA, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona, Spain
Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
No articles found.
Antonin Soulie, Claire Granier, Sabine Darras, Nicolas Zilbermann, Thierno Doumbia, Marc Guevara, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Sekou Keita, Cathy Liousse, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Rachel Hoesly, and Steven Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Anthropogenic emissions are the result of transportation, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial activities, waste treatment and agriculture practices. This paper describes the new CAMS-GLOB-ANT gridded inventory of 2000–2023 anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The methodology to generate the emissions is explained, and the datasets are analysed and compared with publicly available global and regional inventories for selected world regions.
Philippe Thunis, Jeroen Kuenen, Enrico Pisoni, Bertrand Bessagnet, Manjola Banja, Lech Gawuc, Karol Szymankiewicz, Diego Guizardi, Monica Crippa, Susana Lopez-Aparicio, Marc Guevara, Alexander De Meij, Sabine Schindlbacher, and Alain Clappier
An ensemble emission inventory is created with the aim of monitoring the status and progress made with the development of Europe-wide inventories. This emission ensemble serves as a common benchmark for the screening and allows for comparing more than 2 inventories at a time. Because the emission “truth” is unknown, the approach does not tell which inventory is the closest to reality but identify inconsistencies that require special attention.
María Gonçalves Ageitos, Vincenzo Obiso, Ron L. Miller, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Matt Dawson, Yves Balkanski, Jan Perlwitz, Sara Basart, Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Francesca Macchia, Gilbert Montané, Natalie M. Mahowald, Robert O. Green, David R. Thompson, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8623–8657,Short summary
Dust aerosols affect our climate differently depending on their mineral composition. We include dust mineralogy in an atmospheric model considering two existing soil maps, which still have large associated uncertainties. The soil data and the distribution of the minerals in different aerosol sizes are key to our model performance. We find significant regional variations in climate-relevant variables, which supports including mineralogy in our current models and the need for improved soil maps.
Marc Guevara, Hervé Petetin, Oriol Jorba, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Ingrid Super, Claire Granier, Thierno Doumbia, Philippe Ciais, Zhu Liu, Robin D. Lamboll, Sabine Schindlbacher, Bradley Matthews, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8081–8101,Short summary
This study provides an intercomparison of European 2020 emission changes derived from official inventories, which are reported by countries under the framework of several international conventions and directives, and non-official near-real-time estimates, the use of which has significantly grown since the COVID-19 outbreak. The results of the work are used to produce recommendations on how best to approach and make use of near-real-time emissions for modelling and monitoring applications.
Cristina González-Flórez, Martina Klose, Andrés Alastuey, Sylvain Dupont, Jerónimo Escribano, Vicken Etyemezian, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Yue Huang, Konrad Kandler, George Nikolich, Agnesh Panta, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7177–7212,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust consists of tiny mineral particles that are emitted by wind erosion from arid regions. Its particle size distribution (PSD) affects its impact on the Earth's system. Nowadays, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust PSD and a lot of debate about its variability. Here, we try to address these issues based on the measurements performed during a wind erosion and dust emission field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara within the framework of FRAGMENT project.
Ruben Urraca, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Nicolás Álamos, Lucas Berna-Peña, Monica Crippa, Sabine Darras, Sitjn Dellaert, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Mark Dowell, Nadine Gobron, Claire Granier, Giacomo Grassi, Marc Guevara, Diego Guizzardi, Kevin Gurney, Nicolás Huneeus, Sekou Keita, Jeoren Kuenen, Ana Lopez-Noreña, Enrique Puliafito, Geoffrey Roest, Simone Rossi, Antonin Soulie, and Antoon Visschedijk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
CoCO2-MOSAIC 1.0 is a global mosaic of regional bottom-up inventories providing gridded (0.1˚×0.1˚) monthly CO2 emissions fluxes. Regional datasets include country-specific information and finer spatial resolution than global inventories. Therefore, CoCO2-MOSAIC can be considered as a regionally accepted reference to assess the quality of global emission inventories and to evaluate the sensitivity of inverse models to the bottom-up emissions used as priors.
Danny M. Leung, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Gregory S. Okin, Catherine Prigent, Martina Klose, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Laurent Menut, Natalie M. Mahowald, David M. Lawrence, and Marcelo Chamecki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6487–6523,Short summary
Desert dust modeling is important for understanding climate change, as dust regulates the atmosphere's greenhouse effect and radiation. This study formulates and proposes a more physical and realistic desert dust emission scheme for global and regional climate models. By considering more aeolian processes in our emission scheme, our simulations match better against dust observations than existing schemes. We believe this work is vital in improving dust representation in climate models.
Danny M. Leung, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, David M. Lawrence, Simone Tilmes, Erik Kluzek, Martina Klose, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
This study uses a premier Earth system model to evaluate a new desert dust emission scheme proposed in our companion paper. We show that our scheme accounts for more dust emission physics, hence matching better against observations than other existing dust emission schemes do. Our scheme's dust emissions also couple tightly with meteorology, hence likely improving the modeled dust sensitivity to climate change. We believe this work is vital for improving dust representation in climate models.
Adolfo González-Romero, Cristina González-Florez, Agnesh Panta, Jesús Yus-Díez, Cristina Reche, Patricia Córdoba, Andres Alastuey, Konrad Kandler, Martina Klose, Clarissa Baldo, Roger N. Clark, Zong Bo Shi, Xavier Querol, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
The effect of dust emitted from desertic surfaces upon climate and ecosystems depends on their size and mineralogy, but, data from soil mineral atlases of desert soils is scarce. We performed particle size distribution, mineralogy and Fe speciation at S Morocco. Results show coarser particles, with high quartz proportion are near the elevated areas, meanwhile in depressed areas, finer sizes and higher proportions of clays and nano Fe-oxides. This differences are important for dust modelling.
Vincenzo Obiso, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Gregory L. Schuster, Susanne E. Bauer, Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Jan P. Perlwitz, Konstantinos Tsigaridis, and Ronald L. Miller
We account for regionally varying soil mineral content to calculate the dust shortwave direct radiative effect. Compared to a model with uniform dust composition, our observationally constrained approach reduces dust absorption while increasing its spatio-temporal variation, in better agreement with AERONET. Explicit treatment of mineral content increases cooling by dust. Better measurements of soil minerals and refined modeling techniques are needed to improve estimates of dust-climate impacts.
Aleksander Lacima, Hervé Petetin, Albert Soret, Dene Bowdalo, Oriol Jorba, Zhaoyue Chen, Raúl F. Méndez Turrubiates, Hicham Achebak, Joan Ballester, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 2689–2718,Short summary
Understanding how air pollution varies across space and time is of key importance for the safeguarding of human health. This work arose in the context of the project EARLY-ADAPT, for which the Barcelona Supercomputing Center developed an air pollution database covering all of Europe. Through different statistical methods, we compared two global pollution models against measurements from ground stations and found significant discrepancies between the observed and the modeled surface pollution.
Michail Mytilinaios, Sara Basart, Sergio Ciamprone, Juan Cuesta, Claudio Dema, Enza Di Tomaso, Paola Formenti, Antonis Gkikas, Oriol Jorba, Ralph Kahn, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Serena Trippetta, and Lucia Mona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5487–5516,Short summary
Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (MONARCH) dust reanalysis provides a high-resolution 3D reconstruction of past dust conditions, allowing better quantification of climate and socioeconomic dust impacts. We assess the performance of the reanalysis needed to reproduce dust optical depth using dust-related products retrieved from satellite and ground-based observations and show that it reproduces the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of atmospheric dust well.
Marc Guevara, Santiago Enciso, Carles Tena, Oriol Jorba, Stijn Dellaert, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
A global dataset of emissions from thermal power plants was created for the year 2018. The resulting catalogue reports annual emissions of CO2 and co-emitted species (NOx, CO, SO2 and CH4) for more than 16000 individual facilities at their exact geographical location. Information on the temporal and vertical distribution of the emissions is also provided at the facility level. The dataset is intended to support current and future satellite emission monitoring and inverse modelling efforts.
Hervé Petetin, Marc Guevara, Steven Compernolle, Dene Bowdalo, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Santiago Enciso, Oriol Jorba, Franco Lopez, Albert Soret, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3905–3935,Short summary
This study analyses the potential of the TROPOMI space sensor for monitoring the variability of NO2 pollution over the Iberian Peninsula. A reduction of NO2 levels is observed during the weekend and in summer, especially over most urbanized areas, in agreement with surface observations. An enhancement of NO2 is found during summer with TROPOMI over croplands, potentially related to natural soil NO emissions, which illustrates the outstanding value of TROPOMI for complementing surface networks.
Agnesh Panta, Konrad Kandler, Andres Alastuey, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo González-Romero, Martina Klose, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3861–3885,Short summary
Desert dust is a major aerosol component of the Earth system and affects the climate. Dust properties are influenced by particle size, mineralogy, shape, and mixing state. This work characterizes freshly emitted individual mineral dust particles from a major source region using electron microscopy. Our new insights into critical particle-specific information will contribute to better constraining climate models that consider mineralogical variations in their representation of the dust cycle.
Zhao-Yue Chen, Raul Méndez, Hervé Petetin, Aleksander Lacima, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, and Joan Ballester
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Given in the limitations of existing AOD and its size fraction information, a new 18-year daily Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) dataset over Europe has been developed based on quantile machine learning (QML) models. This dataset improves the ability to monitor and analyse fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosols. They provide better tools to investigate negatively affect human health and have impacts on climate, visibility, and biogeochemical cycling.
Marios Chatziparaschos, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Kalivitis, Athanasios Nenes, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Montserrat Costa-Surós, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Medea Zanoli, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Maria Kanakidou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1785–1801,Short summary
Ice formation is enabled by ice-nucleating particles (INP) at higher temperatures than homogeneous formation and can profoundly affect the properties of clouds. Our global model results show that K-feldspar is the most important contributor to INP concentrations globally, affecting mid-level mixed-phase clouds. However, quartz can significantly contribute and dominates the lowest and the highest altitudes of dust-derived INP, affecting mainly low-level and high-level mixed-phase clouds.
Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Jan Mateu Armengol, Margarida Samso Cabre, Kim Serradell, Albert Soret, and Carlos Pérez Garcia-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11603–11630,Short summary
This study investigates the extent to which ozone forecasts provided by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) can be improved using surface observations and state-of-the-art statistical methods. Through a case study over the Iberian Peninsula in 2018–2019, it unambiguously demonstrates the value of these methods for improving the raw CAMS O3 forecasts while at the same time highlighting the complexity of improving the detection of the highest O3 concentrations.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Enrico Pisoni, Bertrand Bessagnet, Jeroen Kuenen, Marc Guevara, and Susana Lopez-Aparicio
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5271–5286,Short summary
In this work, we propose a screening method to improve the quality of emission inventories, which are responsible for large uncertainties in air-quality modeling. The first step of screening consists of keeping only emission contributions that are relevant enough. In a second step, the method identifies large differences that provide evidence of methodological divergence or errors. We used the approach to compare two versions of the CAMS-REG European-scale inventory over 150 European cities.
Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Sara Basart, Paul Ginoux, Francesca Macchia, Francesca Barnaba, Francesco Benincasa, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Arnau Buñuel, Miguel Castrillo, Emilio Cuevas, Paola Formenti, María Gonçalves, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Lucia Mona, Gilbert Montané Pinto, Michail Mytilinaios, Vincenzo Obiso, Miriam Olid, Nick Schutgens, Athanasios Votsis, Ernest Werner, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2785–2816,Short summary
MONARCH reanalysis of desert dust aerosols extends the existing observation-based information for mineral dust monitoring by providing 3-hourly upper-air, surface and total column key geophysical variables of the dust cycle over Northern Africa, the Middle East and Europe, at a 0.1° horizontal resolution in a rotated grid, from 2007 to 2016. This work provides evidence of the high accuracy of this data set and its suitability for air quality and health and climate service applications.
Marc Guevara, Hervé Petetin, Oriol Jorba, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Ingrid Super, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Elisa Majamäki, Lasse Johansson, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2521–2552,Short summary
To control the spread of the COVID-19 disease, European governments implemented mobility restriction measures that resulted in an unprecedented drop in anthropogenic emissions. This work presents a dataset of emission adjustment factors that allows quantifying changes in 2020 European primary emissions per country and pollutant sector at the daily scale. The resulting dataset can be used as input in modelling studies aiming at quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on air quality levels.
Matthew L. Dawson, Christian Guzman, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Mario Acosta, Shupeng Zhu, Donald Dabdub, Andrew Conley, Matthew West, Nicole Riemer, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3663–3689,Short summary
Progress in identifying complex, mixed-phase physicochemical processes has resulted in an advanced understanding of the evolution of atmospheric systems but has also introduced a level of complexity that few atmospheric models were designed to handle. We present a flexible treatment for multiphase chemical processes for models of diverse scale, from box up to global models. This enables users to build a customized multiphase mechanism that is accessible to a much wider community.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Elisa Bergas-Massó, María Gonçalves-Ageitos, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, Akinori Ito, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, Maarten C. Krol, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3079–3120,Short summary
We here describe the implementation of atmospheric multiphase processes in the EC-Earth Earth system model. We provide global budgets of oxalate, sulfate, and iron-containing aerosols, along with an analysis of the links among atmospheric composition, aqueous-phase processes, and aerosol dissolution, supported by comparison to observations. This work is a first step towards an interactive calculation of the deposition of bioavailable atmospheric iron coupled to the model’s ocean component.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Jasper F. Kok, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3553–3578,Short summary
We present a comprehensive climatological analysis of dust optical depth (DOD) relying on the MIDAS dataset. MIDAS provides columnar mid-visible (550 nm) DOD at fine spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). In the current study, the analysis is performed at various spatial (from regional to global) and temporal (from months to years) scales. More specifically, focus is given to specific regions hosting the major dust sources as well as downwind areas of the planet.
Jerónimo Escribano, Enza Di Tomaso, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Francesca Macchia, Vassilis Amiridis, Holger Baars, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Claudia Urbanneck, Dietrich Althausen, Johannes Bühl, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 535–560,Short summary
We explore the benefits and consistency in adding lidar dust observations in a dust optical depth assimilation. We show that adding lidar data to a dust optical depth assimilation has valuable benefits and the dust analysis improves. We discuss the impact of the narrow satellite footprint of the lidar dust observations on the assimilation.
Michaël Sicard, Oriol Jorba, Jiang Ji Ho, Rebeca Izquierdo, Concepción De Linares, Marta Alarcón, Adolfo Comerón, and Jordina Belmonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17807–17832,Short summary
This paper investigates the mechanisms involved in the dispersion, structure, and mixing in the vertical column of atmospheric pollen, using observations of pollen concentration obtained at the ground and its stratification in the atmosphere measured by a lidar (laser radar), as well as an atmospheric transport model and a simplified pollen module developed especially for this study. The largest pollen concentration difference between the ground and the layers above is observed during nighttime.
Martina Klose, Oriol Jorba, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Jeronimo Escribano, Matthew L. Dawson, Vincenzo Obiso, Enza Di Tomaso, Sara Basart, Gilbert Montané Pinto, Francesca Macchia, Paul Ginoux, Juan Guerschman, Catherine Prigent, Yue Huang, Jasper F. Kok, Ron L. Miller, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6403–6444,Short summary
Mineral soil dust is a major atmospheric airborne particle type. We present and evaluate MONARCH, a model used for regional and global dust-weather prediction. An important feature of the model is that it allows different approximations to represent dust, ranging from more simplified to more complex treatments. Using these different treatments, MONARCH can help us better understand impacts of dust in the Earth system, such as its interactions with radiation.
Victor Lannuque, Bastien Sauvage, Brice Barret, Hannah Clark, Gilles Athier, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Jean-Marc Cousin, Alain Fontaine, Eric Le Flochmoën, Philippe Nédélec, Hervé Petetin, Isabelle Pfaffenzeller, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Pawel Wolff, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14535–14555,Short summary
The African intertropical troposphere is one of the world areas where the increase in ozone mixing ratio has been most pronounced since 1980 and where high carbon monoxide mixing ratios are found in altitude. In this article, IAGOS aircraft measurements, IASI satellite instrument observations, and SOFT-IO model products are used to explore the seasonal distribution variations and the origin of ozone and carbon monoxide over the African upper troposphere.
Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Philippe Le Sager, Declan O'Donnell, Risto Makkonen, María Gonçalves-Ageitos, Ralf Döscher, Uwe Fladrich, Jost von Hardenberg, Jukka-Pekka Keskinen, Hannele Korhonen, Anton Laakso, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Pirkka Ollinaho, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Thomas Reerink, Roland Schrödner, Klaus Wyser, and Shuting Yang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5637–5668,Short summary
This paper documents the global climate model EC-Earth3-AerChem, one of the members of the EC-Earth3 family of models participating in CMIP6. We give an overview of the model and describe in detail how it differs from its predecessor and the other EC-Earth3 configurations. The model's performance is characterized using coupled simulations conducted for CMIP6. The model has an effective equilibrium climate sensitivity of 3.9 °C and a transient climate response of 2.1 °C.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Danny M. Leung, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, Jessica S. Wan, and Chloe A. Whicker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8127–8167,Short summary
Desert dust interacts with virtually every component of the Earth system, including the climate system. We develop a new methodology to represent the global dust cycle that integrates observational constraints on the properties and abundance of desert dust with global atmospheric model simulations. We show that the resulting representation of the global dust cycle is more accurate than what can be obtained from a large number of current climate global atmospheric models.
Romain Blot, Philippe Nedelec, Damien Boulanger, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Jean-Marc Cousin, Gilles Athier, Andreas Zahn, Florian Obersteiner, Dieter Scharffe, Hervé Petetin, Yasmine Bennouna, Hannah Clark, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3935–3951,Short summary
A lack of information about temporal changes in measurement uncertainties is an area of concern for long-term trend studies of the key compounds which have a direct or indirect impact on climate change. The IAGOS program has measured O3 and CO within the troposphere and lower stratosphere for more than 25 years. In this study, we demonstrated that the IAGOS database can be treated as one continuous program and is therefore appropriate for studies of long-term trends.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, and Jessica S. Wan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8169–8193,Short summary
The many impacts of dust on the Earth system depend on dust mineralogy, which varies between dust source regions. We constrain the contribution of the world’s main dust source regions by integrating dust observations with global model simulations. We find that Asian dust contributes more and that North African dust contributes less than models account for. We obtain a dataset of each source region’s contribution to the dust cycle that can be used to constrain dust impacts on the Earth system.
Jérôme Barré, Hervé Petetin, Augustin Colette, Marc Guevara, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Laurence Rouil, Richard Engelen, Antje Inness, Johannes Flemming, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Dene Bowdalo, Frederik Meleux, Camilla Geels, Jesper H. Christensen, Michael Gauss, Anna Benedictow, Svetlana Tsyro, Elmar Friese, Joanna Struzewska, Jacek W. Kaminski, John Douros, Renske Timmermans, Lennart Robertson, Mario Adani, Oriol Jorba, Mathieu Joly, and Rostislav Kouznetsov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7373–7394,Short summary
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of air quality changes across the main European urban areas induced by the COVID-19 lockdown using satellite observations, surface site measurements, and the forecasting system from the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for weather and seasonal variability when calculating such estimates.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Martina Klose, Douglas S. Hamilton, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Paul Ginoux, Yves Balkanski, Robert O. Green, Olga Kalashnikova, Jasper F. Kok, Vincenzo Obiso, David Paynter, and David R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3973–4005,Short summary
For the first time, this study quantifies the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to uncertainty in the soil mineral abundance using all currently available information. We show that the majority of the estimated direct radiative effect range is due to uncertainty in the simulated mass fractions of iron oxides and thus their soil abundance, which is independent of the model employed. We therefore prove the necessity of considering mineralogy for understanding dust–climate interactions.
Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Carles Tena, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Nellie Elguindi, Sabine Darras, Claire Granier, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 367–404,Short summary
The temporal variability of atmospheric emissions is linked to changes in activity patterns, emission processes and meteorology. Accounting for the change in temporal emission characteristics is a key aspect for modelling the trends of air pollutants. This work presents a dataset of global and European emission temporal profiles to be used for air quality modelling purposes. The profiles were constructed considering the influences of local sociodemographic factors and climatological conditions.
Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Albert Soret, Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Kim Serradell, Carles Tena, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 773–797,Short summary
Most European countries have imposed lockdowns to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a socioeconomic disruption has resulted in a sudden drop of atmospheric emissions and air pollution levels. This study quantifies the daily reductions in national emissions and associated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) due to the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe, by making use of multiple open-access measured activity data as well as artificial intelligence and modelling techniques.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Alexandra Tsekeri, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 309–334,Short summary
We present the development of the MIDAS (ModIs Dust AeroSol) data set, providing daily dust optical depth (DOD; 550 nm) at a global scale and fine spatial resolution (0.1° x 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). It has been developed via the synergy of MODIS-Aqua and MERRA-2 data, while CALIOP and AERONET retrievals are used for its assessment. MIDAS upgrades existing dust observational capabilities, and it is suitable for dust climatological studies, model evaluation, and data assimilation.
Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Albert Soret, Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Kim Serradell, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11119–11141,Short summary
To control the spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus, the Spanish Government recently implemented a strict lockdown of the population, which strongly reduced the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), one of the most critical air pollutants in Spain. This study quantifies the contribution of the lockdown on these reduced NO2 levels in Spain, taking the confounding effect of meteorology on artificial intelligence techniques into account.
Marc Guevara, Carles Tena, Manuel Porquet, Oriol Jorba, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 873–903,Short summary
Emission inventories are a key input to numerical systems that simulate air quality. In this paper, we present an open-source tool intended for the computation of high-resolution anthropogenic emissions for air quality modelling. Emissions are estimated using detailed methods that combine local activity and emission factors along with meteorological data. Specific results are presented for Spain. Nevertheless, the model is designed so that it can be applicable to any European country or region.
Jaume Ramon, Llorenç Lledó, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Albert Soret, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 429–439,Short summary
A dataset containing quality-controlled wind observations from 222 tall towers has been created. Wind speed and wind direction records have been collected from existing tall towers in an effort to boost the utilization of these non-standard atmospheric datasets. Observations are compiled in a unique collection with a common format, access, documentation and quality control (QC). For the latter, a total of 18 QC checks have been considered to ensure the high quality of the wind data.
Bing Pu, Paul Ginoux, Huan Guo, N. Christina Hsu, John Kimball, Beatrice Marticorena, Sergey Malyshev, Vaishali Naik, Norman T. O'Neill, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Juliette Paireau, Joseph M. Prospero, Elena Shevliakova, and Ming Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 55–81,Short summary
Dust emission initiates when surface wind velocities exceed a threshold depending on soil and surface characteristics and varying spatially and temporally. Climate models widely use wind erosion thresholds. The climatological monthly global distribution of the wind erosion threshold, Vthreshold, is retrieved using satellite and reanalysis products and improves the simulation of dust frequency, magnitude, and the seasonal cycle in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land–atmosphere model.
Jaime Benavides, Michelle Snyder, Marc Guevara, Albert Soret, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Fulvio Amato, Xavier Querol, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2811–2835,Short summary
The NO2 annual air quality limit value is systematically exceeded in many European cities. In this context, understanding human exposure, improving policy and planning, and providing forecasts requires the development of accurate air quality models at street level. We describe CALIOPE-Urban, a system coupling an operational mesoscale air quality forecast system with an urban roadway dispersion model over Barcelona city (Spain). The methodology may be replicated for other cities in the future.
Marc Guevara, Carles Tena, Manuel Porquet, Oriol Jorba, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1885–1907,Short summary
Atmospheric emission inventories, which describe the amounts of pollutants released into the air by different sources and for specific regions, are an essential input to numerical models that estimate air quality. This work presents the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System version 3 (HERMESv3), an open-source modelling framework that allows adapting existing global and regional emission inventories to the input requirements of air quality models in a flexible and transparent way.
María Teresa Pay, Gotzon Gangoiti, Marc Guevara, Sergey Napelenok, Xavier Querol, Oriol Jorba, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5467–5494,Short summary
The poor diagnostic of the O3 issue over southwestern Europe prevents authorities from implementing effective mitigation plans. This work is a pioneer in identifying that imported O3 is the largest input to the ground-level O3 concentration in the Iberian Peninsula, which is largely explained by vertical mixing. This study also proves that anthropogenic emissions control the severe O3 peaks during stagnant conditions. Ad hoc local actions should complement national/European strategies.
Hervé Petetin, Bastien Sauvage, Mark Parrington, Hannah Clark, Alain Fontaine, Gilles Athier, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, Philippe Nédélec, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17277–17306,Short summary
This study derives a climatology of the impact of biomass burning versus anthropogenic emissions on the strongest CO plumes observed in the troposphere based on a dataset of about 30 000 in situ vertical profiles, combined with Lagrangian simulations coupled to CO emission. Results demonstrate the large contribution of biomass burning to the strongest CO plumes encountered in the troposphere in many locations of the world.
Rachel A. Scanza, Douglas S. Hamilton, Carlos Perez Garcia-Pando, Clifton Buck, Alex Baker, and Natalie M. Mahowald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14175–14196,Short summary
Soluble iron input to remote oceans from dust and combustion aerosols may significantly impact the ability of the ocean to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In this paper, the processing of insoluble iron during atmospheric transport is simulated using parameterizations that can be implemented in most Earth system models. Our mechanism reasonably matches observations and is computationally efficient, enabling the study of trends and climate impacts due to the Fe–C cycle.
Angela Benedetti, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Samuel Rémy, Sara Basart, Olivier Boucher, Ian M. Brooks, Laurent Menut, Lucia Mona, Paolo Laj, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Alexander Baklanov, Malcolm Brooks, Peter R. Colarco, Emilio Cuevas, Arlindo da Silva, Jeronimo Escribano, Johannes Flemming, Nicolas Huneeus, Oriol Jorba, Stelios Kazadzis, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Patricia K. Quinn, Thomas T. Sekiyama, Taichu Tanaka, and Enric Terradellas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10615–10643,Short summary
Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate service providers, and health professionals. This paper describes the advances in the field and sets out requirements for observations for the sustainability of these activities.
Marta G. Vivanco, Mark R. Theobald, Héctor García-Gómez, Juan Luis Garrido, Marje Prank, Wenche Aas, Mario Adani, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Camilla Andersson, Roberto Bellasio, Bertrand Bessagnet, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Gabriele Curci, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cornelis Cuvelier, Massimo D'Isidoro, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Camilla Geels, Kaj M. Hansen, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Oriol Jorba, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Luca Pozzoli, Efisio Solazzo, Svetlana Tsyro, Alper Unal, Peter Wind, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10199–10218,Short summary
European wet and dry atmospheric deposition of N and S estimated by 14 air quality models was found to vary substantially. An ensemble of models meeting acceptability criteria was used to estimate the exceedances of the critical loads for N in habitats within the Natura 2000 network, as well as their lower and upper limits. Scenarios with 20 % emission reductions in different regions of the world showed that European emissions are responsible for most of the N and S deposition in Europe.
Hervé Petetin, Bastien Sauvage, Herman G. J. Smit, François Gheusi, Fabienne Lohou, Romain Blot, Hannah Clark, Gilles Athier, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, Philippe Nedelec, Patrick Neis, Susanne Rohs, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9561–9581,Short summary
Based on the numerous profiles available since 1994, this paper investigates the vertical stratification of ozone, carbon monoxide and relative humidity in the lower part of the troposphere (planetary boundary layer, lower free troposphere). Such a characterization of the vertical distribution of pollution is notably important for better understanding vertical exchanges and evaluating models on the vertical dimension.
Antonis Gkikas, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Oriol Jorba, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Lluis Vendrell, Sara Basart, Stavros Solomos, Santiago Gassó, and José Maria Baldasano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8757–8787,Short summary
The present study investigates the direct radiative effects (DREs), induced during 20 intense Mediterranean desert dust outbreaks, based on regional short-term numerical simulations of the NMMB-MONARCH model: more specifically, (i) the DREs and their associated impacts on temperature and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, (ii) the feedbacks on dust AOD and dust emissions, and (iii) the possible improvements in short-term forecasts (up to 84 h) of temperature and radiation.
Yann Cohen, Hervé Petetin, Valérie Thouret, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Hannah Clark, Bastien Sauvage, Alain Fontaine, Gilles Athier, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, and Philippe Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5415–5453,Short summary
Measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed during 1994–2013 around the tropopause on board commercial aircraft. Seasonal cycles and trends were calculated above eight well-sampled regions in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. CO shows decreasing concentrations over the last 10 years, thus reflecting the impact of the legislation on anthropogenic emissions. Ozone amounts increased over the 20 years in the upper troposphere during different seasons, depending on the longitudes.
Albert Ansmann, Franziska Rittmeister, Ronny Engelmann, Sara Basart, Oriol Jorba, Christos Spyrou, Samuel Remy, Annett Skupin, Holger Baars, Patric Seifert, Fabian Senf, and Thomas Kanitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14987–15006,
Reza Shaiganfar, Steffen Beirle, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Sander Jonkers, Jeroen Kuenen, Herve Petetin, Qijie Zhang, Matthias Beekmann, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7853–7890,Short summary
We determine NOx emissions for Paris in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010 by combining car MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 with wind fields. We compare the results with simulations from the CHIMERE model. We derive daily average NOx emissions for Paris of 4.0 × 1025 molecules s−1 for summer and of 6.9 × 1025 molecules s−1 in winter. These values are a factor of about 1.4 and 2.0 larger than the corresponding emissions in the MACC-III emission inventory.
Alejandro Marti, Arnau Folch, Oriol Jorba, and Zavisa Janjic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4005–4030,Short summary
We describe and evaluate NMMB-MONARCH-ASH, a novel online multi-scale meteorological and transport model developed at the BSC-CNS capable of forecasting the dispersal and deposition of volcanic ash. The forecast skills of the model have been validated and they improve on those from traditional operational offline (decoupled) models. The results support the use of online coupled models to aid civil aviation and emergency management during a crisis such as the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull.
Enza Di Tomaso, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Oriol Jorba, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1107–1129,Short summary
A data assimilation capability has been built for a chemical weather prediction system, with a focus on mineral dust. Before this work, dust was produced uniquely from model estimated emissions. As emissions are recognized as a major factor limiting the accuracy of dust modelling, satellite observations have been used to improve the description of the atmospheric dust load, with a significant impact on dust forecast from assimilating observations particularly relevant for dust applications.
Alba Badia, Oriol Jorba, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Donald Dabdub, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Andreas Hilboll, María Gonçalves, and Zavisa Janjic
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 609–638,Short summary
This paper presents a comprehensive description and benchmark evaluation of the tropospheric gas-phase chemistry component of the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (NMMB-MONARCH), an online chemical weather prediction system conceived for both the regional and global scales. We provide an extensive evaluation of a global annual cycle simulation using a variety of background surface stations, ozonesondes, aircraft data and satellite observations.
Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ulas Im, Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Oriol Jorba, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guidio Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15629–15652,Short summary
Four ensemble methods are applied to two annual AQMEII datasets and their performance is compared for O3, NO2 and PM10. The goal of the study is to quantify to what extent we can extract predictable signals from an ensemble with superior skill at each station over the single models and the ensemble mean. The promotion of the right amount of accuracy and diversity within the ensemble results in an average additional skill of up to 31 % compared to using the full ensemble in an unconditional way.
Hervé Petetin, Valérie Thouret, Alain Fontaine, Bastien Sauvage, Giles Athier, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, and Philippe Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15147–15163,Short summary
Ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are two compounds of major importance in the atmosphere. In this paper we investigated their variability and trends at Frankfurt based on the MOZAIC–IAGOS dataset, a unique dataset of about 21 300 vertical profiles recorded by commercial aircraft. The CO concentrations have been decreasing since 2002, while no strong tendency is observed for O3 since 1994. However, the O3 seasonal variations are changing, with the spring maximum occurring earlier and earlier.
Hervé Petetin, Jean Sciare, Michael Bressi, Valérie Gros, Amandine Rosso, Olivier Sanchez, Roland Sarda-Estève, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10419–10440,Short summary
This paper presents the first combined measurements of both ammonium nitrate aerosols and their gaseous precursors (HNO3, NH3) in the Paris megacity, obtained during the FRANCIPOL and PARTICULES campaigns. This data set is used to investigate the nitrate formation regime within the city, which is particularly important considering the high contribution of nitrates in the fine aerosol pollution of Paris. In addition, it is also used to evaluate the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model.
Antonis Gkikas, Sara Basart, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Jorge Pey, Xavier Querol, Oriol Jorba, Santiago Gassó, and José Maria Baldasano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8609–8642,Short summary
This study presents the 3-D structures of intense Mediterranean desert dust outbreaks, over the period Mar 2000–Feb 2013. The desert dust (DD) episodes are identified through an objective and dynamic algorithm, which utilizes satellite retrievals (MODIS, TOMS and OMI) as inputs. The performance of the satellite algorithm is evaluated vs. AERONET and PM10 data. The geometrical characteristics of the identified DD episodes are analyzed using the collocated CALIOP profiles as a complementary tool.
N. Huneeus, S. Basart, S. Fiedler, J.-J. Morcrette, A. Benedetti, J. Mulcahy, E. Terradellas, C. Pérez García-Pando, G. Pejanovic, S. Nickovic, P. Arsenovic, M. Schulz, E. Cuevas, J. M. Baldasano, J. Pey, S. Remy, and B. Cvetkovic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4967–4986,Short summary
Five dust models are evaluated regarding their performance in predicting an intense Saharan dust outbreak affecting western and northern Europe (NE). Models predict the onset and evolution of the event for all analysed lead times. On average, differences among the models are larger than differences in lead times for each model. The models tend to underestimate the long-range transport towards NE. This is partly due to difficulties in simulating the vertical dust distribution and horizontal wind.
J. P. Perlwitz, C. Pérez García-Pando, and R. L. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11593–11627,Short summary
The mineral composition of dust aerosols is modeled. The mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of wet-sieved soil to account for differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the resulting aerosol concentration. An empirical constraint upon the relative emission of clay and silt is applied that further differentiates soil and aerosol mineral composition. A method is proposed for mixing minerals with iron oxide impurities.
J. P. Perlwitz, C. Pérez García-Pando, and R. L. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11629–11652,Short summary
A global compilation from nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols. Dust emission based on wet-sieved soil is assumed for the first method. The second method reconstructs the aggregates and size distribution of the emitted dust aerosols. Only the second method is able to reproduce observed phyllosilicate fractions in the silt size range and reduces quartz overestimation. Substantial uncertainties remain.
H. Petetin, M. Beekmann, A. Colomb, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, J.-C. Dupont, C. Honoré, V. Michoud, Y. Morille, O. Perrussel, A. Schwarzenboeck, J. Sciare, A. Wiedensohler, and Q. J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9799–9818,
R. Shaiganfar, S. Beirle, H. Petetin, Q. Zhang, M. Beekmann, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2827–2852,
W. R. Sessions, J. S. Reid, A. Benedetti, P. R. Colarco, A. da Silva, S. Lu, T. Sekiyama, T. Y. Tanaka, J. M. Baldasano, S. Basart, M. E. Brooks, T. F. Eck, M. Iredell, J. A. Hansen, O. C. Jorba, H.-M. H. Juang, P. Lynch, J.-J. Morcrette, S. Moorthi, J. Mulcahy, Y. Pradhan, M. Razinger, C. B. Sampson, J. Wang, and D. L. Westphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 335–362,Short summary
H. Petetin, M. Beekmann, J. Sciare, M. Bressi, A. Rosso, O. Sanchez, and V. Ghersi
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1483–1505,
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
M. Spada, O. Jorba, C. Pérez García-Pando, Z. Janjic, and J. M. Baldasano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11735–11755,
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In addition to the dominant role of the PBL scheme on the results of the meteorological field, many factors in the model are influenced by large uncertainties. This study focuses on the uncertainties that influence numerical simulation results (including horizontal resolution, vertical resolution, near-surface scheme, initial and boundary conditions, underlying surface update, and update of model version), hoping to provide a reference for scholars conducting research on the model.
Owen K. Hughes and Christiane Jablonowski
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6805–6831,Short summary
Atmospheric models benefit from idealized tests that assess their accuracy in a simpler simulation. A new test with artificial mountains is developed for models on a spherical earth. The mountains trigger the development of both planetary-scale and small-scale waves. These can be analyzed in dry or moist environments, with a simple rainfall mechanism. Four atmospheric models are intercompared. This sheds light on the pros and cons of the model design and the impact of mountains on the flow.
Zhongwei Luo, Yan Han, Kun Hua, Yufen Zhang, Jianhui Wu, Xiaohui Bi, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Yang Chen, Xin Long, and Yinchang Feng
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6757–6771,Short summary
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Wenxing Jia, Xiaoye Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Deying Wang, Junting Zhong, Wenjie Zhang, Lei Zhang, Lifeng Guo, Yadong Lei, Jizhi Wang, Yuanqin Yang, and Yi Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6635–6670,Short summary
Most current studies on planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes are relatively fragmented and lack systematic in-depth analysis and discussion. In this study, we comprehensively evaluate the performance capability of the PBL scheme in five typical regions of China in different seasons from the mechanism of the scheme and the effects of PBL schemes on the near-surface meteorological parameters, vertical structures of the PBL, PBL height, and turbulent diffusion.
William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and Rosemary Carroll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6531–6552,Short summary
It is important to know how well atmospheric models do in mountains, but there are not very many weather stations. We evaluate rain and snow from a model from 1987–2020 in the Upper Colorado River basin against the available data. The model works rather well, but there are still some uncertainties in remote locations. We then use snow maps collected by aircraft, streamflow measurements, and some advanced statistics to help identify how well the model works in ways we could not do before.
Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Christoffer Karoff, Noelia Rojas Benavente, and Janaina P. Nascimento
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6413–6431,Short summary
A 1-year simulation of atmospheric CH4 over Europe is performed and evaluated against observations based on the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). A good general model–observation agreement is found, with discrepancies reaching their minimum and maximum values during the summer peak season and winter months, respectively. A huge and under-explored potential for CH4 inverse modeling using improved TROPOMI XCH4 data sets in large-scale applications is identified.
Zhaojun Tang, Zhe Jiang, Jiaqi Chen, Panpan Yang, and Yanan Shen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6377–6392,Short summary
We designed a new framework to facilitate emission inventory updates in the adjoint of GEOS-Chem model. It allows us to support Harmonized Emissions Component (HEMCO) emission inventories conveniently and to easily add more emission inventories following future updates in GEOS-Chem forward simulations. Furthermore, we developed new modules to support MERRA-2 meteorological data; this allows us to perform long-term analysis with consistent meteorological data.
Rui Zhu, Zhaojun Tang, Xiaokang Chen, Xiong Liu, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6337–6354,Short summary
A single ozone (O3) tracer mode was developed in this work to build the capability of the GEOS-Chem model for rapid O3 simulation. It is combined with OMI and surface O3 observations to investigate the changes in tropospheric O3 in China in 2015–2020. The assimilations indicate rapid surface O3 increases that are underestimated by the a priori simulations. We find stronger increases in tropospheric O3 columns over polluted areas and a large discrepancy by assimilating different observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Ryan Hossaini, N. Luke Abraham, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6187–6209,Short summary
Development and performance of the new DEST chemistry scheme of UM–UKCA is described. The scheme extends the standard StratTrop scheme by including important updates to the halogen chemistry, thus allowing process-oriented studies of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery, including impacts from both controlled long-lived ozone-depleting substances and emerging issues around uncontrolled, very short-lived substances. It will thus aid studies in support of future ozone assessment reports.
Shaohui Zhou, Chloe Yuchao Gao, Zexia Duan, Xingya Xi, and Yubin Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6247–6266,Short summary
The proposed wind speed correction model (VMD-PCA-RF) demonstrates the highest prediction accuracy and stability in the five southern provinces in nearly a year and at different heights. VMD-PCA-RF evaluation indices for 13 months remain relatively stable: the forecasting accuracy rate FA is above 85 %. In future research, the proposed VMD-PCA-RF algorithm can be extrapolated to the 3 km grid points of the five southern provinces to generate a 3 km grid-corrected wind speed product.
Simone Tilmes, Michael J. Mills, Yunqian Zhu, Charles G. Bardeen, Francis Vitt, Pengfei Yu, David Fillmore, Xiaohong Liu, Brian Toon, and Terry Deshler
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6087–6125,Short summary
We implemented an alternative aerosol scheme in the high- and low-top model versions of the Community Earth System Model Version 2 (CESM2) with a more detailed description of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol size distributions than the existing aerosol model. This development enables the comparison of different aerosol schemes with different complexity in the same model framework. It identifies improvements compared to a range of observations in both the troposphere and stratosphere.
Dien Wu, Joshua L. Laughner, Junjie Liu, Paul I. Palmer, John C. Lin, and Paul O. Wennberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6161–6185,Short summary
To balance computational expenses and chemical complexity in extracting emission signals from tropospheric NO2 columns, we propose a simplified non-linear Lagrangian chemistry transport model and assess its performance against TROPOMI v2 over power plants and cities. Using this model, we then discuss how NOx chemistry affects the relationship between NOx and CO2 emissions and how studying NO2 columns helps quantify modeled biases in wind directions and prior emissions.
Jiangshan Zhu and Ross Noel Bannister
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6067–6085,Short summary
We describe how condensation and evaporation are included in the existing (otherwise dry) simplified ABC model. The new model (Hydro-ABC) includes transport of vapour and condensate within a dynamical core, and it transitions between these two phases via a micro-physics scheme. The model shows the development of an anvil cloud and excitation of atmospheric waves over many frequencies. The covariances that develop between variables are also studied together with indicators of convective motion.
Jiangyong Li, Chunlin Zhang, Wenlong Zhao, Shijie Han, Yu Wang, Hao Wang, and Boguang Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6049–6066,Short summary
Photochemical box models, crucial for understanding tropospheric chemistry, face challenges due to slow computational efficiency with large chemical equations. The model introduced in this study, ROMAC, boosts efficiency by up to 96 % using an advanced atmospheric solver and an adaptive optimization algorithm. Moreover, ROMAC exceeds traditional box models in evaluating the impact of physical processes on pollutant concentrations.
Lina Vitali, Kees Cuvelier, Antonio Piersanti, Alexandra Monteiro, Mario Adani, Roberta Amorati, Agnieszka Bartocha, Alessandro D'Ausilio, Paweł Durka, Carla Gama, Giulia Giovannini, Stijn Janssen, Tomasz Przybyła, Michele Stortini, Stijn Vranckx, and Philippe Thunis
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6029–6047,Short summary
Air quality forecasting models play a key role in fostering short-term measures aimed at reducing human exposure to air pollution. Together with this role comes the need for a thorough assessment of the model performances to build confidence in models’ capabilities, in particular when model applications support policymaking. In this paper, we propose an evaluation methodology and test it on several domains across Europe, highlighting its strengths and room for improvement.
Wenfu Tang, Louisa K. Emmons, Helen M. Worden, Rajesh Kumar, Cenlin He, Benjamin Gaubert, Zhonghua Zheng, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Sara-Eva Martinez-Alonso, Claire Granier, Antonin Soulie, Kathryn McKain, Bruce C. Daube, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea Thompson, and Pieternel Levelt
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6001–6028,Short summary
The new MUSICAv0 model enables the study of atmospheric chemistry across all relevant scales. We develop a MUSICAv0 grid for Africa. We evaluate MUSICAv0 with observations and compare it with a previously used model – WRF-Chem. Overall, the performance of MUSICAv0 is comparable to WRF-Chem. Based on model–satellite discrepancies, we find that future field campaigns in an eastern African region (30°E–45°E, 5°S–5°N) could substantially improve the predictive skill of air quality models.
Shuzhuang Feng, Fei Jiang, Zheng Wu, Hengmao Wang, Wei He, Yang Shen, Lingyu Zhang, Yanhua Zheng, Chenxi Lou, Ziqiang Jiang, and Weimin Ju
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5949–5977,Short summary
We document the system development and application of a Regional multi-Air Pollutant Assimilation System (RAPAS v1.0). This system is developed to optimize gridded source emissions of CO, SO2, NOx, primary PM2.5, and coarse PM10 on a regional scale via simultaneously assimilating surface measurements of CO, SO2, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10. A series of sensitivity experiments demonstrates the advantage of the “two-step” inversion strategy and the robustness of the system in estimating the emissions.
Megan A. Stretton, William Morrison, Robin J. Hogan, and Sue Grimmond
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5931–5947,Short summary
Cities' materials and forms impact radiative fluxes. We evaluate the SPARTACUS-Urban multi-layer approach to modelling longwave radiation, describing realistic 3D geometry statistically using the explicit DART (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) model. The temperature configurations used are derived from thermal camera observations. SPARTACUS-Urban accurately predicts longwave fluxes, with a low computational time (cf. DART), but has larger errors with sunlit/shaded surface temperatures.
Daehyeon Han, Jungho Im, Yeji Shin, and Juhyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5895–5914,Short summary
To identify the key factors affecting quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) using deep learning (DL), we carried out a comprehensive evaluation and analysis. We compared four key factors: DL model, length of the input sequence, loss function, and ensemble approach. Generally, U-Net outperformed ConvLSTM. Loss function and ensemble showed potential for improving performance when they synergized well. The length of the input sequence did not significantly affect the results.
Fabien Margairaz, Balwinder Singh, Jeremy A. Gibbs, Loren Atwood, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Rob Stoll
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5729–5754,Short summary
The Quick Environmental Simulation (QES) tool is a low-computational-cost fast-response framework. It provides high-resolution wind and concentration information to study complex problems, such as spore or smoke transport, urban pollution, and air quality. This paper presents the particle dispersion model and its validation against analytical solutions and wind-tunnel data for a mock-urban setting. In all cases, the model provides accurate results with competitive computational performance.
Tao Wang, Hang Liu, Jie Li, Shuai Wang, Youngseob Kim, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5585–5599,Short summary
This paper developed a two-way coupled module in a new version of a regional urban–street network model, IAQMS-street v2.0, in which the mass flux from streets to background is considered. Test cases are defined to evaluate the performance of IAQMS-street v2.0 in Beijing by comparing it with that simulated by IAQMS-street v1.0 and a regional model. The contribution of local emissions and the influence of on-road vehicle control measures on air quality are evaluated by using IAQMS-street v2.0.
Denis E. Sergeev, Nathan J. Mayne, Thomas Bendall, Ian A. Boutle, Alex Brown, Iva Kavčič, James Kent, Krisztian Kohary, James Manners, Thomas Melvin, Enrico Olivier, Lokesh K. Ragta, Ben Shipway, Jon Wakelin, Nigel Wood, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5601–5626,Short summary
Three-dimensional climate models are one of the best tools we have to study planetary atmospheres. Here, we apply LFRic-Atmosphere, a new model developed by the Met Office, to seven different scenarios for terrestrial planetary climates, including four for the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e, a primary target for future observations. LFRic-Atmosphere reproduces these scenarios within the spread of the existing models across a range of key climatic variables, justifying its use in future exoplanet studies.
Roland Eichinger, Sebastian Rhode, Hella Garny, Peter Preusse, Petr Pisoft, Aleš Kuchař, Patrick Jöckel, Astrid Kerkweg, and Bastian Kern
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5561–5583,Short summary
The columnar approach of gravity wave (GW) schemes results in dynamical model biases, but parallel decomposition makes horizontal GW propagation computationally unfeasible. In the global model EMAC, we approximate it by GW redistribution at one altitude using tailor-made redistribution maps generated with a ray tracer. More spread-out GW drag helps reconcile the model with observations and close the 60°S GW gap. Polar vortex dynamics are improved, enhancing climate model credibility.
Xueying Liu, Yuxuan Wang, Shailaja Wasti, Wei Li, Ehsan Soleimanian, James Flynn, Travis Griggs, Sergio Alvarez, John T. Sullivan, Maurice Roots, Laurence Twigg, Guillaume Gronoff, Timothy Berkoff, Paul Walter, Mark Estes, Johnathan W. Hair, Taylor Shingler, Amy Jo Scarino, Marta Fenn, and Laura Judd
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5493–5514,Short summary
With a comprehensive suite of ground-based and airborne remote sensing measurements during the 2021 TRacking Aerosol Convection ExpeRiment – Air Quality (TRACER-AQ) campaign in Houston, this study evaluates the simulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the ozone vertical profile by a high-resolution (1.33 km) 3-D photochemical model Weather Research and Forecasting-driven GEOS-Chem (WRF-GC).
Stijn Van Leuven, Pieter De Meutter, Johan Camps, Piet Termonia, and Andy Delcloo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5323–5338,Short summary
Precipitation collects airborne particles and deposits these on the ground. This process is called wet deposition and greatly determines how airborne radioactive particles (released routinely or accidentally) contaminate the surface. In this work we present a new method to improve the calculation of wet deposition in computer models. We apply this method to the existing model FLEXPART by simulating the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) and show that it improves the simulation of wet deposition.
Thibaud Sarica, Alice Maison, Yelva Roustan, Matthias Ketzel, Steen Solvang Jensen, Youngseob Kim, Christophe Chaillou, and Karine Sartelet
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5281–5303,Short summary
A new version of the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH) is developed to represent heterogeneities of concentrations in streets. The street volume is discretized vertically and horizontally to limit the artificial dilution of emissions and concentrations. This new version is applied to street networks in Copenhagen and Paris. The comparisons to observations are improved, with higher concentrations of pollutants emitted by traffic at the bottom of the street.
Junsu Gil, Meehye Lee, Jeonghwan Kim, Gangwoong Lee, Joonyoung Ahn, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5251–5263,Short summary
In this study, the framework for calculating reactive nitrogen species using a deep neural network (RND) was developed. It works through simple Python codes and provides high-accuracy reactive nitrogen oxide data. In the first version (RNDv1.0), the model calculates the nitrous acid (HONO) in urban areas, which has an important role in producing O3 and fine aerosol.
Daniel Yazgi and Tinja Olenius
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5237–5249,Short summary
We present flexible tools to implement aerosol formation rate predictions in climate and chemical transport models. New-particle formation is a significant but uncertain factor affecting aerosol numbers and an active field within molecular modeling which provides data for assessing formation rates for different chemical species. We introduce tools to generate and interpolate formation rate lookup tables for user-defined data, thus enabling the easy inclusion and testing of formation schemes.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5219–5236,Short summary
Measuring the performance of inversions in linear Bayesian problems is crucial in real-life applications. In this work, we provide analytical forms of the local and global sensitivities of the estimated fluxes with respect to various inputs. We provide methods to uniquely map the observational signal to spatiotemporal domains. Utilizing this, we also show techniques to assess correlations between the Jacobians that naturally translate to nonstationary covariance matrix components.
Mingzhao Liu, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Zhongyin Cai, Yi Heng, and Xue Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5197–5217,Short summary
We introduce new and revised chemistry and physics modules in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) Lagrangian transport model aiming to improve the representation of volcanic SO2 transport and depletion. We test these modules in a case study of the Ambae eruption in July 2018 in which the SO2 plume underwent wet removal and convection. The lifetime of SO2 shows highly variable and complex dependencies on the atmospheric conditions at different release heights.
Bernhard M. Enz, Jan P. Engelmann, and Ulrike Lohmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5093–5112,Short summary
An algorithm to track tropical cyclones in model simulation data has been developed. The algorithm uses many combinations of varying parameter thresholds to detect weaker phases of tropical cyclones while still being resilient to false positives. It is shown that the algorithm performs well and adequately represents the tropical cyclone activity of the underlying simulation data. The impact of false positives on overall tropical cyclone activity is shown to be insignificant.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, and Yongsheng Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5069–5091,Short summary
We have combined various capabilities within a WRF model to generate simulations of atmospheric pollutant dispersion at 50 m resolution. The study objective was to resolve transport processes at the scale of measurements to assess and optimize aircraft-based emission rate retrievals. Model performance evaluation resulted in agreement within 5 % of observed meteorological and within 1–2 standard deviations of observed wind fields. Mass was conserved in the model within 5 % of input emissions.
Dylan Reynolds, Ethan Gutmann, Bert Kruyt, Michael Haugeneder, Tobias Jonas, Franziska Gerber, Michael Lehning, and Rebecca Mott
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5049–5068,Short summary
The challenge of running geophysical models is often compounded by the question of where to obtain appropriate data to give as input to a model. Here we present the HICAR model, a simplified atmospheric model capable of running at spatial resolutions of hectometers for long time series or over large domains. This makes physically consistent atmospheric data available at the spatial and temporal scales needed for some terrestrial modeling applications, for example seasonal snow forecasting.
Li Fang, Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Bufan Xu, Wei Han, Mijie Pang, and Hai Xiang Lin
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4867–4882,Short summary
Machine learning models have gained great popularity in air quality prediction. However, they are only available at air quality monitoring stations. In contrast, chemical transport models (CTM) provide predictions that are continuous in the 3D field. Owing to complex error sources, they are typically biased. In this study, we proposed a gridded prediction with high accuracy by fusing predictions from our regional feature selection machine learning prediction (RFSML v1.0) and a CTM prediction.
Willem Elias van Caspel, David Simpson, Jan Eiof Jonson, Anna Maria Katarina Benedictow, Yao Ge, Alcide di Sarra, Giandomenico Pace, Massimo Vieno, Hannah Walker, and Mathew Heal
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Radiation coming from the sun is essential to atmospheric chemistry, driving the break-up, or photo-dissociation, of atmospheric molecules. This in turn affects the chemical composition and reactivity of the atmosphere. The representation of these photo-dissociation effects is therefore essential in atmospheric chemistry modeling. One such models is the EMEP MSC-W model, for which in this paper a new way of calculating the photo-dissociation rates is tested and evaluated.
Manu Goudar, Juliëtte C. S. Anema, Rajesh Kumar, Tobias Borsdorff, and Jochen Landgraf
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4835–4852,Short summary
A framework was developed to automatically detect plumes and compute emission estimates with cross-sectional flux method (CFM) for biomass burning events in TROPOMI CO datasets using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire data. The emissions were more reliable when changing plume height in downwind direction was used instead of constant injection height. The CFM had uncertainty even when the meteorological conditions were accurate; thus there is a need for better inversion models.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Daniel J. Varon, Melissa Sulprizio, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, and Kevin W. Bowman
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4793–4810,Short summary
We have built a tool called CHEEREIO that allows scientists to use observations of pollutants or gases in the atmosphere, such as from satellites or surface stations, to update supercomputer models that simulate the Earth. CHEEREIO uses the difference between the model simulations of the atmosphere and real-world observations to come up with a good guess for the actual composition of our atmosphere, the true emissions of various pollutants, and whatever else they may want to study.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4749–4766,Short summary
The Earth's atmosphere can support various types of global-scale waves. Some waves propagate eastward and others westward, and they can have different zonal wavenumbers. The Fourier–wavelet analysis is a useful technique for identifying different components of global-scale waves and their temporal variability. This paper introduces an easy-to-implement method to derive Fourier–wavelet spectra from 2-D space–time data. Application examples are presented using atmospheric models.
Bok H. Baek, Carlie Coats, Siqi Ma, Chi-Tsan Wang, Yunyao Li, Jia Xing, Daniel Tong, Soontae Kim, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4659–4676,Short summary
To enable the direct feedback effects of aerosols and local meteorology in an air quality modeling system without any computational bottleneck, we have developed an inline meteorology-induced emissions coupler module within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to dynamically model the complex MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) on-road mobile emissions inline without a separate dedicated emissions processing model like SMOKE.
Christoph Neuhauser, Maicon Hieronymus, Michael Kern, Marc Rautenhaus, Annika Oertel, and Rüdiger Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4617–4638,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction models rely on parameterizations for sub-grid-scale processes, which are a source of uncertainty. We present novel visual analytics solutions to analyze interactively the sensitivities of a selected prognostic variable to multiple model parameters along trajectories regarding similarities in temporal development and spatiotemporal relationships. The proposed workflow is applied to cloud microphysical sensitivities along coherent strongly ascending trajectories.
Liangke Huang, Shengwei Lan, Ge Zhu, Fade Chen, Junyu Li, and Lilong Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The existing ZTD models have limitations such as using a single fitting function, neglecting daily cycle variations, and relying on only one resolution grid data for modeling. This model considers the daily-cycle variation and latitude factor of ZTD, using the sliding window algorithm based on ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data. The ZTD data from 545 radiosonde stations and MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis data are used to validate the accuracy of the GGZTD-P model.
Yingqi Zheng, Minttu Havu, Huizhi Liu, Xueling Cheng, Yifan Wen, Hei Shing Lee, Joyson Ahongshangbam, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4551–4579,Short summary
The performance of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is evaluated against the observed surface exchanges (fluxes) of heat and carbon dioxide in a densely built neighborhood in Beijing. The heat flux modeling is noticeably improved by using the observed maximum conductance and by optimizing the vegetation phenology modeling. SUEWS also performs well in simulating carbon dioxide flux.
Marie-Adèle Magnaldo, Quentin Libois, Sébastien Riette, and Christine Lac
With the worlwide development of the solar energy sector, the need for reliable solar radiation forecasts has significantly increased. However meteorological models that predict among others things solar radiation, have errors. Therefore, we so wanted to know in which situtaions these errors are most significant. We found that errors mostly occurs in cloudy situations, and different errors were highlighted depending of the cloud altitude. Several potential sources of errors were identified.
Simone Dietmüller, Sigrun Matthes, Katrin Dahlmann, Hiroshi Yamashita, Abolfazl Simorgh, Manuel Soler, Florian Linke, Benjamin Lührs, Maximilian M. Meuser, Christian Weder, Volker Grewe, Feijia Yin, and Federica Castino
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4405–4425,Short summary
Climate-optimized aircraft trajectories avoid atmospheric regions with a large climate impact due to aviation emissions. This requires spatially and temporally resolved information on aviation's climate impact. We propose using algorithmic climate change functions (aCCFs) for CO2 and non-CO2 effects (ozone, methane, water vapor, contrail cirrus). Merged aCCFs combine individual aCCFs by assuming aircraft-specific parameters and climate metrics. Technically this is done with a Python library.
Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4427–4450,Short summary
We investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection with modern interactive visual analysis techniques for case studies of extra-tropical cyclones and comparisons of frontal structures between different numerical weather prediction models. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment them in the vertical dimension. We see great potential for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.
Zhenxin Liu, Yuanhao Chen, Yuhang Wang, Cheng Liu, Shuhua Liu, and Hong Liao
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4385–4403,Short summary
The heterogeneous layout of urban buildings leads to the complex wind field in and over the urban canopy. Large discrepancies between the observations and the current simulations result from misunderstanding the character of the wind field. The Inhomogeneous Wind Scheme in Urban Street (IWSUS) was developed to simulate the heterogeneity of the wind speed in a typical street and then improve the simulated energy budget in the lower atmospheric layer over the urban canopy.
Kai Cao, Qizhong Wu, Lingling Wang, Nan Wang, Huaqiong Cheng, Xiao Tang, Dongqing Li, and Lanning Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4367–4383,Short summary
Offline performance experiment results show that the GPU-HADVPPM on a V100 GPU can achieve up to 1113.6 × speedups to its original version on an E5-2682 v4 CPU. A series of optimization measures are taken, and the CAMx-CUDA model improves the computing efficiency by 128.4 × on a single V100 GPU card. A parallel architecture with an MPI plus CUDA hybrid paradigm is presented, and it can achieve up to 4.5 × speedup when launching eight CPU cores and eight GPU cards.
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4265–4281,Short summary
This study analyzes forecasts that were made in 2021 to help trigger measurements during the CADDIWA experiment. The WRF and CHIMERE models were run each day, and the first goal is to quantify the variability of the forecast as a function of forecast leads and forecast location. The possibility of using the different leads as an ensemble is also tested. For some locations, the correlation scores are better with this approach. This could be tested on operational forecast chains in the future.
Emily de Jong, John Ben Mackay, Oleksii Bulenok, Anna Jaruga, and Sylwester Arabas
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4193–4211,Short summary
In clouds, collisional breakup occurs when two colliding droplets splinter into new, smaller fragments. Particle-based modeling approaches often do not represent breakup because of the computational demands of creating new droplets. We present a particle-based breakup method that preserves the computational efficiency of these methods. In a series of simple demonstrations, we show that this representation alters cloud processes in reasonable and expected ways.
Caiyi Jin, Qiangqiang Yuan, Tongwen Li, Yuan Wang, and Liangpei Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 4137–4154,Short summary
The semi-empirical physical approach derives PM2.5 with strong physical significance. However, due to the complex optical characteristic, the physical parameters are difficult to express accurately. Thus, combining the atmospheric physical mechanism and machine learning, we propose an optimized model. It creatively embeds the random forest model into the physical PM2.5 remote sensing approach to simulate a physical parameter. Our method shows great optimized performance in the validations.
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This work aims to derive and evaluate a general statistical post-processing tool specifically designed for the street scale that can be applied to any urban air quality system. Our data fusion methodology corrects NO2 fields based on continuous hourly observations and experimental campaigns. This study enables us to obtain exceedance probability maps of air quality standards. In 2019, 13 % of the Barcelona area had a 70 % or higher probability of exceeding the annual legal NO2 limit of 40 µg/m3.
This work aims to derive and evaluate a general statistical post-processing tool specifically...