Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Model description paper
15 Feb 2019
Model description paper |  | 15 Feb 2019

GCAM v5.1: representing the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems

Katherine Calvin, Pralit Patel, Leon Clarke, Ghassem Asrar, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Ryna Yiyun Cui, Alan Di Vittorio, Kalyn Dorheim, Jae Edmonds, Corinne Hartin, Mohamad Hejazi, Russell Horowitz, Gokul Iyer, Page Kyle, Sonny Kim, Robert Link, Haewon McJeon, Steven J. Smith, Abigail Snyder, Stephanie Waldhoff, and Marshall Wise

Related authors

GCAM-USA v5.3_water_dispatch: integrated modeling of subnational US energy, water, and land systems within a global framework
Matthew Binsted, Gokul Iyer, Pralit Patel, Neal T. Graham, Yang Ou, Zarrar Khan, Nazar Kholod, Kanishka Narayan, Mohamad Hejazi, Son Kim, Katherine Calvin, and Marshall Wise
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2533–2559,,, 2022
Short summary
Modeling land use and land cover change: using a hindcast to estimate economic parameters in gcamland v2.0
Katherine V. Calvin, Abigail Snyder, Xin Zhao, and Marshall Wise
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 429–447,,, 2022
Short summary
Modeling perennial bioenergy crops in the E3SM land model
Eva Sinha, Kate Calvin, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Beth Drewniak, Dan Ricciuto, Khachik Sargsyan, Yanyan Cheng, Carl Bernacchi, and Caitlin Moore
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,,, 2021
Preprint withdrawn
Short summary
Harmonization of global land use change and management for the period 850–2100 (LUH2) for CMIP6
George C. Hurtt, Louise Chini, Ritvik Sahajpal, Steve Frolking, Benjamin L. Bodirsky, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Justin Fisk, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Tomoko Hasegawa, Peter Havlik, Andreas Heinimann, Florian Humpenöder, Johan Jungclaus, Jed O. Kaplan, Jennifer Kennedy, Tamás Krisztin, David Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Lei Ma, Ole Mertz, Julia Pongratz, Alexander Popp, Benjamin Poulter, Keywan Riahi, Elena Shevliakova, Elke Stehfest, Peter Thornton, Francesco N. Tubiello, Detlef P. van Vuuren, and Xin Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5425–5464,,, 2020
Short summary
Calibration and analysis of the uncertainty in downscaling global land use and land cover projections from GCAM using Demeter (v1.0.0)
Min Chen, Chris R. Vernon, Maoyi Huang, Katherine V. Calvin, and Ian P. Kraucunas
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1753–1764,,, 2019
Short summary

Related subject area

Climate and Earth system modeling
An evaluation of the LLC4320 global-ocean simulation based on the submesoscale structure of modeled sea surface temperature fields
Katharina Gallmeier, J. Xavier Prochaska, Peter Cornillon, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Madolyn Kelm
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 7143–7170,,, 2023
Short summary
An emulation-based approach for interrogating reactive transport models
Angus Fotherby, Harold J. Bradbury, Jennifer L. Druhan, and Alexandra V. Turchyn
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 7059–7074,,, 2023
Short summary
A sub-grid parameterization scheme for topographic vertical motion in CAM5-SE
Yaqi Wang, Lanning Wang, Juan Feng, Zhenya Song, Qizhong Wu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6857–6873,,, 2023
Short summary
Technology to aid the analysis of large-volume multi-institute climate model output at a central analysis facility (PRIMAVERA Data Management Tool V2.10)
Jon Seddon, Ag Stephens, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Pier Luigi Vidale, and Malcolm J. Roberts
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6689–6700,,, 2023
Short summary
A diffusion-based kernel density estimator (diffKDE, version 1) with optimal bandwidth approximation for the analysis of data in geoscience and ecological research
Maria-Theresia Pelz, Markus Schartau, Christopher J. Somes, Vanessa Lampe, and Thomas Slawig
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 6609–6634,,, 2023
Short summary

Cited articles

Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Homma, T., Oda, J., Nagashima, M., and Kii, M.: Estimates of GHG emission reduction potential by country, sector, and cost, Energ. Policy, 38, 3384–3393, 2010. 
Bauer, N., Rose, S. K., Fujimori, S., van Vuuren, D. P., Weyant, J., Wise, M., Cui, Y., Daioglou, V., Gidden, M. J., Kato, E., Kitous, A., Leblanc, F., Sands, R., Sano, F., Strefler, J., Tsutsui, J., Bibas, R., Fricko, O., Hasegawa, T., Klein, D., Kurosawa, A., Mima, S., and Muratori, M.: Global energy sector emission reductions and bioenergy use: overview of the bioenergy demand phase of the EMF-33 model comparison, Clim. Change,, online first, 2018. 
Bond-Lamberty, B., Dorheim, K. R., Cui, Y., Horowitz, R. L., Snyder, A. C., Calvin, K. V., and Feng, L.: The gcamdata package: preparation, synthesis, and tracking of input data for the GCAM integrated human-earth systems model, J. Open Res. Softw., accepted, 2018. 
Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S., Roden, C., Streets, D. G., and Trautmann, N. M.: Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–2000, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, GB2018,, 2007. 
Bosetti, V., Massetti, E., and Tavoni, M.: The Witch Model: Structure, Baseline, Solutions, 12064, 1–56, 2007. 
Short summary
This paper describes GCAM v5.1, an open source model that represents the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems. GCAM examines the future evolution of these systems through the end of the 21st century. It can be used to examine, for example, how changes in population, income, or technology cost might alter crop production, energy demand, or water withdrawals, or how changes in one region’s demand for energy affect energy, water, and land in other regions.