Articles | Volume 10, issue 11
Model evaluation paper
23 Nov 2017
Model evaluation paper | 23 Nov 2017
Evaluation of the wind farm parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.8.1) with meteorological and turbine power data
Joseph C. Y. Lee and Julie K. Lundquist
No articles found.
Rachel Robey and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4585–4622,Short summary
Our work investigates the behavior of errors in remote-sensing wind lidar measurements due to turbulence. Using a virtual instrument, we measured winds in simulated atmospheric flows and decomposed the resulting error. Dominant error mechanisms, particularly vertical velocity variations and interactions with shear, were identified in ensemble data over three test cases. By analyzing the underlying mechanisms, the response of the error behavior to further varying flow conditions may be projected.
Paul Veers, Katherine Dykes, Sukanta Basu, Alessandro Bianchini, Andrew Clifton, Peter Green, Hannele Holttinen, Lena Kitzing, Branko Kosovic, Julie K. Lundquist, Johan Meyers, Mark O’Malley, William J. Shaw, and Bethany Straw
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WESShort summary
Wind Energy will play a central role in the transition of our energy system to a carbon-free future. However, many underlying scientific issues remain to be resolved before wind can be deployed in the locations and applications needed for such large-scale ambitions. The Grand Challenges are the gaps in the science left behind during the rapid growth of wind energy. This article explains the breadth of the unfinished business and introduces ten articles that detail the research needs.
Vincent Pronk, Nicola Bodini, Mike Optis, Julie K. Lundquist, Patrick Moriarty, Caroline Draxl, Avi Purkayastha, and Ethan Young
Wind Energ. Sci., 7, 487–504,Short summary
In this paper, we have assessed to which extent mesoscale numerical weather prediction models are more accurate than state-of-the-art reanalysis products in characterizing the wind resource at heights of interest for wind energy. The conclusions of our work will be of primary importance to the wind industry for recommending the best data sources for wind resource modeling.
Adam S. Wise, James M. T. Neher, Robert S. Arthur, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, Julie K. Lundquist, and Fotini K. Chow
Wind Energ. Sci., 7, 367–386,Short summary
Wind turbine wake behavior in hilly terrain depends on various atmospheric conditions. We modeled a wind turbine located on top of a ridge in Portugal during typical nighttime and daytime atmospheric conditions and validated these model results with observational data. During nighttime conditions, the wake deflected downwards following the terrain. During daytime conditions, the wake deflected upwards. These results can provide insight into wind turbine siting and operation in hilly regions.
Alex Rybchuk, Timothy W. Juliano, Julie K. Lundquist, David Rosencrans, Nicola Bodini, and Mike Optis
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WESShort summary
Numerical weather prediction models are used to predict how wind turbines will interact with the atmosphere. Here, we characterize the uncertainty associated with the choice of turbulence parameterization on modeled wakes. We find that simulated wind speed deficits in turbine wakes can be significantly sensitive to the choice of turbulence parameterization. As such, predictions of future generated power are also sensitive to turbulence parameterization choice.
Hannah Livingston, Nicola Bodini, and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this paper, we assess whether hub-height turbulence can easily be quantified from either other hub-height variables or ground-level measurements in complex terrain. We find a large variability across the three considered locations when trying to model hub-height turbulence intensity and turbulence kinetic energy. Our results highlight the nonlinear and complex nature of atmospheric turbulence, so that more powerful techniques should instead be recommended to model hub-height turbulence.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez, Julie K. Lundquist, Petra M. Klein, and Tyler M. Bell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3539–3549,Short summary
In July 2018, the International Society for Atmospheric Research using Remotely-piloted Aircraft (ISARRA) hosted a flight week to demonstrate unmanned aircraft systems' capabilities in sampling the atmospheric boundary layer. Three Doppler lidars were deployed during this week-long experiment. We use data from these lidars to estimate turbulence dissipation rate. We observe large temporal variability and significant differences in dissipation for lidars with different sampling techniques.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez, Julie K. Lundquist, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, Robert S. Arthur, and Domingo Muñoz-Esparza
Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Winds decelerate upstream of a wind plant as turbines obstruct and extract energy from the flow. This effect is known as wind plant blockage. We assess how atmospheric stability modifies the upstream wind plant blockage. We find stronger stability amplifies this effect. We also explore different approaches to quantifying blockage from field-like observations. We find different methodologies may induce errors of the same order of magnitude as the blockage-induced velocity deficits.
Alex Rybchuk, Mike Optis, Julie K. Lundquist, Michael Rossol, and Walt Musial
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We characterize the wind resource off the coast of California by conducting simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model between 2000 and 2019. We compare newly simulated winds to those from the WIND Toolkit. The newly simulated winds are substantially stronger, particularly in the late summer. We also conduct a refined analysis at three areas that are being considered for commercial development, finding that stronger winds translates to substantially more power here.
Tyler M. Bell, Petra M. Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, and Sean Waugh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1041–1051,Short summary
In July 2018, numerous weather sensing remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) were flown in a flight week called Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE). As part of LAPSE-RATE, ground-based remote and in situ systems were also deployed to supplement and enhance observations from the RPASs. These instruments include multiple Doppler lidars, thermodynamic profilers, and radiosondes. This paper describes data from these systems.
Caroline Draxl, Rochelle P. Worsnop, Geng Xia, Yelena Pichugina, Duli Chand, Julie K. Lundquist, Justin Sharp, Garrett Wedam, James M. Wilczak, and Larry K. Berg
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 45–60,Short summary
Mountain waves can create oscillations in low-level wind speeds and subsequently in the power output of wind plants. We document such oscillations by analyzing sodar and lidar observations, nacelle wind speeds, power observations, and Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations. This research describes how mountain waves form in the Columbia River basin and affect wind energy production and their impact on operational forecasting, wind plant layout, and integration of power into the grid.
Jessica M. Tomaszewski and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci., 6, 1–13,Short summary
We use a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model to conduct a case study of a thunderstorm outflow passing over and interacting with a wind farm. These simulations and observations from a nearby radar and surface station confirm that interactions with the wind farm cause the outflow to reduce its speed by over 20 km h−1, with brief but significant impacts on the local meteorology, including temperature, moisture, and winds. Precipitation accumulation across the region was unaffected.
Gijs de Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David Schmale III, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, and Anders Jensen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3357–3366,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign, held from 14 to 20 July 2018. This field campaign spanned a 1-week deployment to Colorado's San Luis Valley, involving over 100 students, scientists, engineers, pilots, and outreach coordinators. This overview paper provides insight into the campaign for a special issue focused on the datasets collected during LAPSE-RATE.
Antonia Englberger, Julie K. Lundquist, and Andreas Dörnbrack
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1623–1644,Short summary
Wind turbines rotate clockwise. The rotational direction of the rotor interacts with the nighttime veering wind, resulting in a rotational-direction impact on the wake. In the case of counterclockwise-rotating blades the streamwise velocity in the wake is larger in the Northern Hemisphere whereas it is smaller in the Southern Hemisphere.
Antonia Englberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1359–1374,Short summary
At night, the wind direction often changes with height, and this veer affects structures near the surface like wind turbines. Wind turbines usually rotate clockwise, but this rotational direction interacts with veer to impact the flow field behind a wind turbine. If another turbine is located downwind, the direction of the upwind turbine's rotation will affect the downwind turbine.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, and Mike Optis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4271–4285,Short summary
While turbulence dissipation rate (ε) is an essential parameter for the prediction of wind speed, its current representation in weather prediction models is inaccurate, especially in complex terrain. In this study, we leverage the potential of machine-learning techniques to provide a more accurate representation of turbulence dissipation rate. Our results show a 30 % reduction in the average error compared to the current model representation of ε and a total elimination of its average bias.
Patrick Murphy, Julie K. Lundquist, and Paul Fleming
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 1169–1190,Short summary
We present and evaluate an improved method for predicting wind turbine power production based on measurements of the wind speed and direction profile across the rotor disk for a wind turbine in complex terrain. By comparing predictions to actual power production from a utility-scale wind turbine, we show this method is more accurate than methods based on hub-height wind speed or surface-based atmospheric characterization.
Paul Fleming, Jennifer King, Eric Simley, Jason Roadman, Andrew Scholbrock, Patrick Murphy, Julie K. Lundquist, Patrick Moriarty, Katherine Fleming, Jeroen van Dam, Christopher Bay, Rafael Mudafort, David Jager, Jason Skopek, Michael Scott, Brady Ryan, Charles Guernsey, and Dan Brake
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 945–958,Short summary
This paper presents the results of a field campaign investigating the performance of wake steering applied at a section of a commercial wind farm. It is the second phase of the study for which the first phase was reported in a companion paper (https://wes.copernicus.org/articles/4/273/2019/). The authors implemented wake steering on two turbine pairs and compared results with the latest FLORIS model of wake steering, showing good agreement in overall energy increase.
Jessica M. Tomaszewski and Julie K. Lundquist
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2645–2662,Short summary
Wind farms can briefly impact the nearby environment by reducing wind speeds and mixing warmer air down to the surface. The wind farm parameterization (WFP) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a tool that numerically simulates wind farms and these meteorological impacts. We highlight the importance of choice in model settings and find that sufficiently fine vertical and horizontal grids with turbine turbulence are needed to accurately simulate wind farm meteorological impacts.
Philipp Gasch, Andreas Wieser, Julie K. Lundquist, and Norbert Kalthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1609–1631,Short summary
We present an airborne Doppler lidar simulator (ADLS) based on high-resolution atmospheric wind fields (LES). The ADLS is used to evaluate the retrieval accuracy of airborne wind profiling under turbulent, inhomogeneous wind field conditions inside the boundary layer. With the ADLS, the error due to the violation of the wind field homogeneity assumption used for retrieval can be revealed. For the conditions considered, flow inhomogeneities exert a dominant influence on wind profiling error.
Simon K. Siedersleben, Andreas Platis, Julie K. Lundquist, Bughsin Djath, Astrid Lampert, Konrad Bärfuss, Beatriz Cañadillas, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, Jens Bange, Tom Neumann, and Stefan Emeis
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 249–268,Short summary
Wind farms affect local weather and microclimates. These effects can be simulated in weather models, usually by removing momentum at the location of the wind farm. Some debate exists whether additional turbulence should be added to capture the enhanced mixing of wind farms. By comparing simulations to measurements from airborne campaigns near offshore wind farms, we show that additional turbulence is necessary. Without added turbulence, the mixing is underestimated during stable conditions.
Miguel Sanchez Gomez and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci., 5, 125–139,Short summary
Wind turbine performance depends on various atmospheric conditions. We quantified the effect of the change in wind direction and speed with height (direction and speed wind shear) on turbine power at a wind farm in Iowa. Turbine performance was affected during large direction shear and small speed shear conditions and favored for the opposite scenarios. These effects make direction shear significant when analyzing the influence of different atmospheric variables on turbine operation.
Norman Wildmann, Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Ludovic Bariteau, and Johannes Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6401–6423,Short summary
Turbulence is the variation of wind velocity on short timescales. In this study we introduce a new method to measure turbulence in a two-dimensionial plane with lidar instruments. The method allows for the detection and quantification of subareas of distinct turbulence conditions in the observed plane. We compare the results to point and profile measurements with more established instruments. It is shown that turbulence below low-level jets and in wind turbine wakes can be investigated this way.
Laura Bianco, Irina V. Djalalova, James M. Wilczak, Joseph B. Olson, Jaymes S. Kenyon, Aditya Choukulkar, Larry K. Berg, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Eric P. Grimit, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Julie K. Lundquist, Paytsar Muradyan, Mikhail Pekour, Yelena Pichugina, Mark T. Stoelinga, and David D. Turner
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4803–4821,Short summary
During the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project, improvements to the parameterizations were applied to the High Resolution Rapid Refresh model and its nested version. The impacts of the new parameterizations on the forecast of 80 m wind speeds and power are assessed, using sodars and profiling lidars observations for comparison. Improvements are evaluated as a function of the model’s initialization time, forecast horizon, time of the day, season, site elevation, and meteorological phenomena.
Paul Fleming, Jennifer King, Katherine Dykes, Eric Simley, Jason Roadman, Andrew Scholbrock, Patrick Murphy, Julie K. Lundquist, Patrick Moriarty, Katherine Fleming, Jeroen van Dam, Christopher Bay, Rafael Mudafort, Hector Lopez, Jason Skopek, Michael Scott, Brady Ryan, Charles Guernsey, and Dan Brake
Wind Energ. Sci., 4, 273–285,Short summary
Wake steering is a form of wind farm control in which turbines use yaw offsets to affect wakes in order to yield an increase in total energy production. In this first phase of a study of wake steering at a commercial wind farm, two turbines implement a schedule of offsets. For two closely spaced turbines, an approximate 14 % increase in energy was measured on the downstream turbine over a 10° sector, with a 4 % increase in energy production of the combined turbine pair.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Mikhail Pekour, Larry K. Berg, and Aditya Choukulkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4367–4382,Short summary
To improve the parameterization of the turbulence dissipation rate (ε) in numerical weather prediction models, we have assessed its temporal and spatial variability at various scales in the Columbia River Gorge during the WFIP2 field experiment. The turbulence dissipation rate shows large spatial variability, even at the microscale, with larger values in sites located downwind of complex orographic structures or in wind farm wakes. Distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles in ε have also been found.
Robert Menke, Nikola Vasiljević, Jakob Mann, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2713–2723,Short summary
This research utilizes several months of lidar measurements from the Perdigão 2017 campaign to investigate flow recirculation zones that occur at the two parallel ridges at the measurement site in Portugal. We found that recirculation occurs in over 50 % of the time when the wind direction is perpendicular to the direction of the ridges. Moreover, we show three-dimensional changes of the zones along the ridges and the implications of recirculation on wind turbines that are operating downstream.
Joseph C. Y. Lee, M. Jason Fields, and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 845–868,Short summary
To find the ideal way to quantify long-term wind-speed variability, we compare 27 metrics using 37 years of wind and energy data. We conclude that the robust coefficient of variation can effectively assess and correlate wind-speed and energy-production variabilities. We derive adequate results via monthly mean data, whereas uncertainty arises in interannual variability calculations. We find that reliable estimates of wind-speed variability require 10 ± 3 years of monthly mean wind data.
Jessica M. Tomaszewski, Julie K. Lundquist, Matthew J. Churchfield, and Patrick J. Moriarty
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 833–843,Short summary
Wind energy development has increased rapidly in rural locations of the United States, areas that also serve general aviation airports. The spinning rotor of a wind turbine creates an area of increased turbulence, and we question if this turbulent air could pose rolling hazards for light aircraft flying behind turbines. We analyze high-resolution simulations of wind flowing past a turbine to quantify the rolling risk and find that wind turbines pose no significant roll hazards to light aircraft.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, and Rob K. Newsom
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4291–4308,Short summary
Turbulence within the atmospheric boundary layer is critically important to transfer heat, momentum, and moisture. Currently, improved turbulence parametrizations are crucially needed to refine the accuracy of model results at fine horizontal scales. In this study, we calculate turbulence dissipation rate from sonic anemometers and discuss a novel approach to derive turbulence dissipation from profiling lidar measurements.
Rochelle P. Worsnop, Michael Scheuerer, Thomas M. Hamill, and Julie K. Lundquist
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 371–393,Short summary
This paper uses four statistical methods to generate probabilistic wind speed and power ramp forecasts from the High Resolution Rapid Refresh model. The results show that these methods can provide necessary uncertainty information of power ramp forecasts. These probabilistic forecasts can aid in decisions regarding power production and grid integration of wind power.
Nicola Bodini, Dino Zardi, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2881–2896,Short summary
Wind turbine wakes have considerable impacts on downwind turbines in wind farms, given their slower wind speeds and increased turbulence. Based on lidar measurements, we apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters for wakes from a row of four turbines in CWEX-13 campaign. We describe how wake characteristics evolve, and for the first time we quantify the relation between wind veer and a stretching of the wake structures, and we highlight different results for inner and outer wakes.
Clara M. St. Martin, Julie K. Lundquist, Andrew Clifton, Gregory S. Poulos, and Scott J. Schreck
Wind Energ. Sci., 2, 295–306,Short summary
We use upwind and nacelle-based measurements from a wind turbine and investigate the influence of atmospheric stability and turbulence regimes on nacelle transfer functions (NTFs) used to correct nacelle-mounted anemometer measurements. This work shows that correcting nacelle winds using NTFs results in similar energy production estimates to those obtained using upwind tower-based wind speeds. Further, stability and turbulence metrics have been found to have an effect on NTFs below rated speed.
Laura Bianco, Katja Friedrich, James M. Wilczak, Duane Hazen, Daniel Wolfe, Ruben Delgado, Steven P. Oncley, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1707–1721,Short summary
XPIA is a study held in 2015 at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory facility, aimed at assessing remote-sensing capabilities for wind energy applications. We use well-defined reference systems to validate temperature retrieved by two microwave radiometers (MWRs) and virtual temperature measured by wind profiling radars with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs). Water vapor density and relative humidity by the MWRs were also compared with similar measurements from the reference systems.
Rob K. Newsom, W. Alan Brewer, James M. Wilczak, Daniel E. Wolfe, Steven P. Oncley, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1229–1240,Short summary
Doppler lidars are remote sensing instruments that use infrared light to measure wind velocity in the lowest 2 to 3 km of the atmosphere. Quantifying the uncertainty in these measurements is crucial for applications ranging from wind resource assessment to model data assimilation. In this study, we evaluate three methods for estimating the random uncertainty by comparing the lidar wind measurements with nearly collocated in situ wind measurements at multiple levels on a tall tower.
Mithu Debnath, Giacomo Valerio Iungo, W. Alan Brewer, Aditya Choukulkar, Ruben Delgado, Scott Gunter, Julie K. Lundquist, John L. Schroeder, James M. Wilczak, and Daniel Wolfe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1215–1227,Short summary
The XPIA experiment was conducted in 2015 at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory to estimate capabilities of various remote-sensing techniques for the characterization of complex atmospheric flows. Among different tests, XPIA provided the unique opportunity to perform simultaneous virtual towers with Ka-band radars and scanning Doppler wind lidars. Wind speed and wind direction were assessed against lidar profilers and sonic anemometer data, highlighting a good accuracy of the data retrieved.
Mithu Debnath, G. Valerio Iungo, Ryan Ashton, W. Alan Brewer, Aditya Choukulkar, Ruben Delgado, Julie K. Lundquist, William J. Shaw, James M. Wilczak, and Daniel Wolfe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 431–444,Short summary
Triple RHI scans were performed with three simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars and assessed with lidar profiler and sonic anemometer data. This test is part of the XPIA experiment. The scan strategy consists in two lidars performing co-planar RHI scans, while a third lidar measures the transversal velocity component. The results show that horizontal velocity and wind direction are measured with good accuracy, while the vertical velocity is typically measured with a significant error.
Katherine McCaffrey, Paul T. Quelet, Aditya Choukulkar, James M. Wilczak, Daniel E. Wolfe, Steven P. Oncley, W. Alan Brewer, Mithu Debnath, Ryan Ashton, G. Valerio Iungo, and Julie K. Lundquist
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 393–407,Short summary
During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) field campaign, the wake and flow distortion from a 300-meter meteorological tower was identified using pairs of sonic anemometers mounted on opposite sides of the tower, as well as profiling and scanning lidars. Wind speed deficits up to 50% and TKE increases of 2 orders of magnitude were observed at wind directions in the wake, along with wind direction differences (flow deflection) outside of the wake.
Aditya Choukulkar, W. Alan Brewer, Scott P. Sandberg, Ann Weickmann, Timothy A. Bonin, R. Michael Hardesty, Julie K. Lundquist, Ruben Delgado, G. Valerio Iungo, Ryan Ashton, Mithu Debnath, Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, Steven Oncley, and Daniel Wolfe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 247–264,Short summary
This paper discusses trade-offs among various wind measurement strategies using scanning Doppler lidars. It is found that the trade-off exists between being able to make highly precise point measurements versus covering large spatial extents. The highest measurement precision is achieved when multiple lidar systems make wind measurements at one point in space, while highest spatial coverage is achieved through using single lidar scanning measurements and using complex retrieval techniques.
Clara M. St. Martin, Julie K. Lundquist, Andrew Clifton, Gregory S. Poulos, and Scott J. Schreck
Wind Energ. Sci., 1, 221–236,Short summary
We use turbine nacelle-based measurements and measurements from an upwind tower to calculate wind turbine power curves and predict the production of energy. We explore how different atmospheric parameters impact these power curves and energy production estimates. Results show statistically significant differences between power curves and production estimates calculated with turbulence and stability filters, and we suggest implementing an additional step in analyzing power performance data.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Dino Zardi, and Mark Handschy
Wind Energ. Sci., 1, 115–128,Short summary
Year-to-year variability of wind speeds limits the certainty of wind-plant preconstruction energy estimates ("resource assessments"). Using 62-year records from 60 stations across Canada we show that resource highs and lows persist for decades, which makes estimates 2–3 times less certain than if annual levels were uncorrelated. Comparing chronological data records with randomly permuted versions of the same data reveals this in an unambiguous and easy-to-understand way.
J. K. Lundquist, M. J. Churchfield, S. Lee, and A. Clifton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 907–920,Short summary
Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications like wind energy, but their use often relies on assuming homogeneity in the wind. Using numerical simulations of stable flow past a wind turbine, we quantify the error expected because of the inhomogeneity of the flow. Large errors (30%) in winds are found near the wind turbine, but by three rotor diameters downwind, errors in the horizontal components have decreased to 15% of the inflow.
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Xueyin Ruan, Chun Zhao, Rahul A. Zaveri, Pengzhen He, Xinming Wang, Jingyuan Shao, and Lei Geng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6143–6164,Short summary
Accurate prediction of aerosol pH in chemical transport models is essential to aerosol modeling. This study examines the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) on aerosol pH predictions and the sensitivities to emissions of nonvolatile cations and NH3, aerosol-phase state assumption, and heterogeneous sulfate production. Temporal evolution of aerosol pH during haze cycles in Beijing and the driving factors are also presented and discussed.
Ping Wang, Kebiao Mao, Fei Meng, Zhihao Qin, Shu Fang, and Sayed M. Bateni
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6059–6083,Short summary
In order to obtain the key parameters of high-temperature spatial–temporal variation analysis, this study proposed a daily highest air temperature (Tmax) estimation frame to build a Tmax dataset in China from 1979 to 2018. We found that the annual and seasonal mean Tmax in most areas of China showed an increasing trend. The abnormal temperature changes mainly occurred in El Nin~o years or La Nin~a years. IOBW had a stronger influence on China's warming events than other factors.
Vanessa Simone Rieger and Volker Grewe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5883–5903,Short summary
Road traffic emissions of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide produce ozone in the troposphere and thus influence Earth's climate. To assess the ozone response to a broad range of mitigation strategies for road traffic, we developed a new chemistry–climate response model called TransClim. It is based on lookup tables containing climate–response relations and thus is able to quickly determine the climate response of a mitigation option.
Josué Bock, Jan Kaiser, Max Thomas, Andreas Bott, and Roland von Glasow
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5807–5828,Short summary
MISTRA-v9.0 is an atmospheric boundary layer chemistry model. The model includes a detailed particle description with regards to the microphysics, gas–particle interactions, and liquid phase chemistry within particles. Version 9.0 is the first release of MISTRA as an open-source community model. This paper presents a thorough description of the model characteristics and components. We show some examples of simulations reproducing previous studies with MISTRA with good consistency.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Melissa Sulprizio, Lucas A. Estrada, William B. Downs, Lu Shen, Sarah E. Hancock, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Elise Penn, Zichong Chen, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Ashutosh Tewari, and Cynthia A. Randles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5787–5805,Short summary
Reducing atmospheric methane emissions is critical to slow near-term climate change. Globally surveying satellite instruments like the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) have unique capabilities for monitoring atmospheric methane around the world. Here we present a user-friendly cloud-computing tool that enables researchers and stakeholders to quantify methane emissions across user-selected regions of interest using TROPOMI satellite observations.
Taewon Cho, Julianne Chung, Scot M. Miller, and Arvind K. Saibaba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5547–5565,Short summary
Atmospheric inverse modeling describes the process of estimating greenhouse gas fluxes or air pollution emissions at the Earth's surface using observations of these gases collected in the atmosphere. The launch of new satellites, the expansion of surface observation networks, and a desire for more detailed maps of surface fluxes have yielded numerous computational and statistical challenges. This article describes computationally efficient methods for large-scale atmospheric inverse modeling.
Zhiqiang Liu, Ning Zeng, Yun Liu, Eugenia Kalnay, Ghassem Asrar, Bo Wu, Qixiang Cai, Di Liu, and Pengfei Han
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5511–5528,Short summary
We described the application of a constrained ensemble Kalman filter (CEnKF) in a joint CO2 and surface carbon fluxes estimation study. By assimilating the pseudo-surface and OCO-2 observations, the annual global flux estimation is significantly biased without mass conservation. With the additional CEnKF process, the CO2 mass is strictly constrained, and the estimation of annual fluxes is significantly improved.
Zheng Zhang, Chuyao Luo, Shanshan Feng, Rui Ye, Yunming Ye, and Xutao Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5407–5419,Short summary
In this paper, we develop a model to predict radar echo sequences and apply it in the precipitation nowcasting field. Different from existing models, we propose two new attention modules. By introducing them, the performance of RAP-Net outperforms other models, especially in those regions with moderate and heavy rainfall. Considering that these regions cause more threats to human activities, the research in our work is significant for preventing natural disasters caused by heavy rainfall.
Fabian Maier, Christoph Gerbig, Ingeborg Levin, Ingrid Super, Julia Marshall, and Samuel Hammer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5391–5406,Short summary
We show that the default representation of point source emissions in WRF–STILT leads to large overestimations when modelling fossil fuel CO2 concentrations for a 30 m high observation site during stable atmospheric conditions. We therefore introduce a novel point source modelling approach in WRF-STILT that takes into account their effective emission heights and results in a much better agreement with observations.
Ivo Suter, Tom Grylls, Birgit S. Sützl, Sam O. Owens, Chris E. Wilson, and Maarten van Reeuwijk
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5309–5335,Short summary
Cities are increasingly moving to the fore of climate and air quality research due to their central role in the population’s health and well-being, while suitable models remain scarce. This article describes the development of a new urban LES model, which allows examining the effects of various processes, infrastructure and vegetation on the local climate and air quality. Possible applications are demonstrated and a comparison to an experiment is shown.
Li Zhang, Raffaele Montuoro, Stuart A. McKeen, Barry Baker, Partha S. Bhattacharjee, Georg A. Grell, Judy Henderson, Li Pan, Gregory J. Frost, Jeff McQueen, Rick Saylor, Haiqin Li, Ravan Ahmadov, Jun Wang, Ivanka Stajner, Shobha Kondragunta, Xiaoyang Zhang, and Fangjun Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5337–5369,Short summary
The NOAA’s air quality predictions contribute to protecting lives and health in the US, which requires sustainable development and improvement of forecast systems. GEFS-Aerosols v1 has been developed in a collaboration between the NOAA research laboratories for operational forecast since September 2020 in the NCEP. The predictions demonstrate substantial improvements for both composition and variability of aerosol distributions over those from the former operational system.
Xuanli Li, Jason B. Roberts, Jayanthi Srikishen, Jonathan L. Case, Walter A. Petersen, Gyuwon Lee, and Christopher R. Hain
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5287–5308,Short summary
This research assimilated the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite-retrieved ocean surface meteorology data into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. This was for two snowstorms during the International Collaborative Experiments for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games' (ICE-POP 2018) field experiments. The results indicated a positive impact of the data for short-term forecasts for heavy snowfall.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Enrico Pisoni, Bertrand Bessagnet, Jeroen Kuenen, Marc Guevara, and Susana Lopez-Aparicio
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5271–5286,Short summary
In this work, we propose a screening method to improve the quality of emission inventories, which are responsible for large uncertainties in air-quality modeling. The first step of screening consists of keeping only emission contributions that are relevant enough. In a second step, the method identifies large differences that provide evidence of methodological divergence or errors. We used the approach to compare two versions of the CAMS-REG European-scale inventory over 150 European cities.
Julian Quimbayo-Duarte, Johannes Wagner, Norman Wildmann, Thomas Gerz, and Juerg Schmidli
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5195–5209,Short summary
The ultimate objective of this model evaluation is to improve boundary layer flow representation over complex terrain. The numerical model is tested against observations retrieved during the Perdigão 2017 field campaign (moderate complex terrain). We observed that the inclusion of a forest parameterization in the numerical model significantly improves the representation of the wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Peter Hitchcock, Amy Butler, Andrew Charlton-Perez, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Tim Stockdale, James Anstey, Dann Mitchell, Daniela I. V. Domeisen, Tongwen Wu, Yixiong Lu, Daniele Mastrangelo, Piero Malguzzi, Hai Lin, Ryan Muncaster, Bill Merryfield, Michael Sigmond, Baoqiang Xiang, Liwei Jia, Yu-Kyung Hyun, Jiyoung Oh, Damien Specq, Isla R. Simpson, Jadwiga H. Richter, Cory Barton, Jeff Knight, Eun-Pa Lim, and Harry Hendon
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5073–5092,Short summary
This paper describes an experimental protocol focused on sudden stratospheric warmings to be carried out by subseasonal forecast modeling centers. These will allow for inter-model comparisons of these major disruptions to the stratospheric polar vortex and their impacts on the near-surface flow. The protocol will lead to new insights into the contribution of the stratosphere to subseasonal forecast skill and new approaches to the dynamical attribution of extreme events.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Bruce H. Vaughn, Sylvia Englund Michel, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4831–4851,Short summary
Estimating CH4 sources by exploiting observations within an inverse modeling framework is a powerful approach. Here, a new system designed to assimilate δ13C(CH4) observations together with CH4 observations is presented. By optimizing both the emissions and associated source signatures of multiple emission categories, this new system can efficiently differentiate the co-located emission categories and provide estimates of CH4 sources that are consistent with isotopic data.
Bok H. Baek, Rizzieri Pedruzzi, Minwoo Park, Chi-Tsan Wang, Younha Kim, Chul-Han Song, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4757–4781,Short summary
The Comprehensive Automobile Research System (CARS) is an open-source Python-based automobile emissions inventory model designed to efficiently estimate high-quality emissions. The CARS is designed to utilize the local vehicle activity database, such as vehicle travel distance, road-link-level network information, and vehicle-specific average speed by road type, to generate a temporally and spatially enhanced inventory for policymakers, stakeholders, and the air quality modeling community.
Joonatan Ala-Könni, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Matti Leppäranta, and Ivan Mammarella
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4739–4755,Short summary
Properties of seasonally ice-covered lakes are not currently sufficiently included in global climate models. To fill this gap, this study evaluates three models that could be used to quantify the amount of heat that moves from and into the lake by the air above it and through evaporation of the ice cover. The results show that the complex nature of the surrounding environment as well as difficulties in accurately measuring the surface temperature of ice introduce errors to these models.
Jason E. Williams, Vincent Huijnen, Idir Bouarar, Mehdi Meziane, Timo Schreurs, Sophie Pelletier, Virginie Marécal, Beatrice Josse, and Johannes Flemming
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4657–4687,Short summary
The global CAMS air quality model is used for providing tropospheric ozone information to end users. This paper updates the chemical mechanism employed (CBA) and compares it against two other mechanisms (MOCAGE, MOZART) and a multi-decadal dataset based on a previous version of CBA. We perform extensive validation for the US using multiple surface and aircraft datasets, providing an assessment of biases and the extent of correlation across different seasons during 2014.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, and Arjo Segers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4555–4567,Short summary
Inversions are used to calculate methane emissions using atmospheric mole-fraction measurements. Multidecadal inversions are needed to extract information from the long measurement records of methane. However, multidecadal inversion computations can take months to finish. Here, we demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in wall clock time for an iterative multidecadal inversion by physical parallelization of chemical transport model.
Jeong-Su Ko, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, Kwonil Kim, Gyuwon Lee, Gregory Thompson, and Alexis Berne
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4529–4553,Short summary
This study evaluates the performance of the four microphysics parameterizations, the WDM6, WDM7, Thompson, and Morrison schemes, in simulating snowfall events during the ICE-POP 2018 field campaign. Eight snowfall events are selected and classified into three categories (cold-low, warm-low, and air–sea interaction cases). The evaluation focuses on the simulated hydrometeors, microphysics budgets, wind fields, and precipitation using the measurement data.
Christoph Fischer, Andreas H. Fink, Elmar Schömer, Roderick van der Linden, Michael Maier-Gerber, Marc Rautenhaus, and Michael Riemer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4447–4468,Short summary
Potential vorticity (PV) analysis plays a central role in studying atmospheric dynamics. For example, anomalies in the PV field near the tropopause are linked to extreme weather events. In this study, an objective strategy to identify these anomalies is presented and evaluated. As a novel concept, it can be applied to three-dimensional (3-D) data sets. Supported by 3-D visualizations, we illustrate advantages of this new analysis over existing studies along a case study.
Joseph Mouallem, Lucas Harris, and Rusty Benson
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4355–4371,Short summary
The single-nest capability in GFDL's dynamical core, FV3, is upgraded to support multiple same-level and telescoping nests. Grid nesting adds a refined grid over an area of interest to better resolve small-scale flow features necessary to accurately predict special weather events such as severe storms and hurricanes. This work allows concurrent execution of multiple same-level and telescoping multi-level nested grids in both global and regional setups.
Clara Betancourt, Timo T. Stomberg, Ann-Kathrin Edrich, Ankit Patnala, Martin G. Schultz, Ribana Roscher, Julia Kowalski, and Scarlet Stadtler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4331–4354,Short summary
Ozone is a toxic greenhouse gas with high spatial variability. We present a machine-learning-based ozone-mapping workflow generating a transparent and reliable product. Going beyond standard mapping methods, this work combines explainable machine learning with uncertainty assessment to increase the integrity of the produced map.
Huan Fang and Greg Michalski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4239–4258,Short summary
A new emission input dataset that incorporates nitrogen isotopes has been used in the CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system simulation to qualitatively analyze the changes in δ15N values, due to the dispersion, mixing, and transport of the atmospheric NOx emitted from different sources. The dispersion, mixing, and transport of the atmospheric NOx were based on the meteorology files generated from the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model.
Juan Manuel Castillo, Huw W. Lewis, Akhilesh Mishra, Ashis Mitra, Jeff Polton, Ashley Brereton, Andrew Saulter, Alex Arnold, Segolene Berthou, Douglas Clark, Julia Crook, Ananda Das, John Edwards, Xiangbo Feng, Ankur Gupta, Sudheer Joseph, Nicholas Klingaman, Imranali Momin, Christine Pequignet, Claudio Sanchez, Jennifer Saxby, and Maria Valdivieso da Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4193–4223,Short summary
A new environmental modelling system has been developed to represent the effect of feedbacks between atmosphere, land, and ocean in the Indian region. Different approaches to simulating tropical cyclones Titli and Fani are demonstrated. It is shown that results are sensitive to the way in which the ocean response to cyclone evolution is captured in the system. Notably, we show how a more rigorous formulation for the near-surface energy budget can be included when air–sea coupling is included.
Weichao Han, Tai-Long He, Zhaojun Tang, Min Wang, Dylan Jones, and Zhe Jiang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4225–4237,Short summary
We present an application of a hybrid deep learning (DL) model on prediction of surface CO in China from 2015 to 2020, which utilizes both convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory neural networks. The DL model performance is better than a Kalman filter (KF) system in the training period (2005–2018). Furthermore, the DL model demonstrates good temporal extensibility: the mean bias and correlation coefficients are 95.7 ppb and 0.93 in the test period (2019–2020) over eastern China.
Shuaiqi Tang, Jerome D. Fast, Kai Zhang, Joseph C. Hardin, Adam C. Varble, John E. Shilling, Fan Mei, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4055–4076,Short summary
We developed an Earth system model (ESM) diagnostics package to compare various types of aerosol properties simulated in ESMs with aircraft, ship, and surface measurements from six field campaigns across spatial scales. The diagnostics package is coded and organized to be flexible and modular for future extension to other field campaign datasets and adapted to higher-resolution model simulations. Future releases will include comprehensive cloud and aerosol–cloud interaction diagnostics.
Ronny Badeke, Volker Matthias, Matthias Karl, and David Grawe
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4077–4103,Short summary
For air quality modeling studies, it is very important to distribute pollutants correctly into the model system. This has not yet been done for shipping pollution in great detail. We studied the effects of different vertical distributions of shipping pollutants on the urban air quality and derived advanced formulas for it. These formulas take weather conditions and ship-specific parameters like the exhaust gas temperature into account.
Jaakko Kukkonen, Juha Nikmo, Kari Riikonen, Ilmo Westerholm, Pekko Ilvessalo, Tuomo Bergman, and Klaus Haikarainen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4027–4054,Short summary
A mathematical model has been developed for the dispersion of plumes originating from major fires. We have refined the model for the early evolution of the fire plumes; such a module has not been previously presented. We have evaluated the model against experimental field-scale data. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the aircraft measurements. We have also compiled an operational version of the model, which can be used for emergency contingency planning in the case of major fires.
Matthias Karl, Liisa Pirjola, Tiia Grönholm, Mona Kurppa, Srinivasan Anand, Xiaole Zhang, Andreas Held, Rolf Sander, Miikka Dal Maso, David Topping, Shuai Jiang, Leena Kangas, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3969–4026,Short summary
The community aerosol dynamics model MAFOR includes several advanced features: coupling with an up-to-date chemistry mechanism for volatile organic compounds, a revised Brownian coagulation kernel that takes into account the fractal geometry of soot particles, a multitude of nucleation parameterizations, size-resolved partitioning of semi-volatile inorganics, and a hybrid method for the formation of secondary organic aerosols within the framework of condensation and evaporation.
Xiaotian Xu, Xu Feng, Haipeng Lin, Peng Zhang, Shaojian Huang, Zhengcheng Song, Yiming Peng, Tzung-May Fu, and Yanxu Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3845–3859,Short summary
Mercury is one of the most toxic pollutants in the environment, and wet deposition is a major process for atmospheric mercury to enter, causing ecological and human health risks. High-mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US has been a problem for many years. Here we employed a newly developed high-resolution WRF-GC model with the capability to simulate mercury to study this problem. We conclude that deep convection caused enhanced mercury wet deposition in the southeastern US.
Jeong-Beom Lee, Jae-Bum Lee, Youn-Seo Koo, Hee-Yong Kwon, Min-Hyeok Choi, Hyun-Ju Park, and Dae-Gyun Lee
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3797–3813,Short summary
The predication of PM2.5 has been carried out using a numerical air quality model in South Korea. Despite recent progress of numerical air quality models, accurate prediction of PM2.5 is still challenging. In this study, we developed a data-based model using a deep neural network (DNN) to overcome the limitations of numerical air quality models. The results showed that the DNN model outperformed the CMAQ when it was trained by using observation and forecasting data from the numerical models.
Matthew L. Dawson, Christian Guzman, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Mario Acosta, Shupeng Zhu, Donald Dabdub, Andrew Conley, Matthew West, Nicole Riemer, and Oriol Jorba
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3663–3689,Short summary
Progress in identifying complex, mixed-phase physicochemical processes has resulted in an advanced understanding of the evolution of atmospheric systems but has also introduced a level of complexity that few atmospheric models were designed to handle. We present a flexible treatment for multiphase chemical processes for models of diverse scale, from box up to global models. This enables users to build a customized multiphase mechanism that is accessible to a much wider community.
Haibo Wang, Ting Yang, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Wenxuan Chai, Guigang Tang, Lei Kong, and Xueshun Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3555–3585,Short summary
In this paper, we develop an online data coupled assimilation system (NAQPMS-PDAF) with the Eulerian atmospheric chemistry-transport model. NAQPMS-PDAF allows efficient use of large computational resources. The application and performance of the system are investigated by assimilating 1 month of vertical aerosol observations. The results show that NAQPMS-PDAF can significantly improve the performance of aerosol vertical structure simulation and reduce the uncertainty to a large extent.
Peng Zhang and Yanxu Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3587–3601,Short summary
Mercury is a global pollutant that can be transported over long distance through the atmosphere. We develop a new online global model for atmospheric mercury. The model reproduces the observed global atmospheric mercury concentrations and deposition distributions by simulating the emissions, transport, and physicochemical processes of atmospheric mercury. And we find that the seasonal variations of atmospheric Hg are the result of multiple processes and have obvious regional characteristics.
Patrick Obin Sturm and Anthony S. Wexler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3417–3431,Short summary
Large air quality and climate models require vast amounts of computational power. Machine learning tools like neural networks can be used to make these models more efficient, with the downside that their results might not make physical sense or be easy to interpret. This work develops a physically interpretable neural network that obeys scientific laws like conservation of mass and models atmospheric composition more accurately than a traditional neural network.
Michael Weger, Holger Baars, Henriette Gebauer, Maik Merkel, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Bernd Heinold
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3315–3345,Short summary
Numerical models are an important tool to assess the air quality in cities, as they can provide near-continouos data in time and space. In this paper, air pollution for an entire city is simulated at a high spatial resolution of 40 m. At this spatial scale, the effects of buildings on the atmosphere, like channeling or blocking of the air flow, are directly represented by diffuse obstacles in the used model CAIRDIO. For model validation, measurements from air-monitoring sites are used.
Patrick C. Campbell, Youhua Tang, Pius Lee, Barry Baker, Daniel Tong, Rick Saylor, Ariel Stein, Jianping Huang, Ho-Chun Huang, Edward Strobach, Jeff McQueen, Li Pan, Ivanka Stajner, Jamese Sims, Jose Tirado-Delgado, Youngsun Jung, Fanglin Yang, Tanya L. Spero, and Robert C. Gilliam
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3281–3313,Short summary
NOAA's National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) continues to protect Americans from the harmful effects of air pollution, while saving billions of dollars per year. Here we describe and evaluate the development of the most advanced version of the NAQFC to date, which became operational at NOAA on 20 July 2021. The new NAQFC is based on a coupling of NOAA's operational Global Forecast System (GFS) version 16 with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 5.3.1.
Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Guangliang Fu, and Otto P. Hasekamp
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3253–3279,Short summary
In our study we quantify the ability of the future satellite sensor SPEXone, part of the NASA PACE mission, to estimate aerosol emissions. The sensor will be able to retrieve accurate information of aerosol light extinction and most importantly light absorption. We simulate SPEXone spatial coverage and combine it with an aerosol model. We found that SPEXone will be able to estimate species-specific (e.g. dust, sea salt, organic or black carbon, sulfates) aerosol emissions very accurately.
Christian Zeman and Christoph Schär
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3183–3203,Short summary
Our atmosphere is a chaotic system, where even a tiny change can have a big impact. This makes it difficult to assess if small changes, such as the move to a new hardware architecture, will significantly affect a weather and climate model. We present a methodology that allows to objectively verify this. The methodology is applied to several test cases, showing a high sensitivity. Results also show that a major system update of the underlying supercomputer did not significantly affect our model.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Elisa Bergas-Massó, María Gonçalves-Ageitos, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Twan van Noije, Philippe Le Sager, Akinori Ito, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, Maarten C. Krol, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3079–3120,Short summary
We here describe the implementation of atmospheric multiphase processes in the EC-Earth Earth system model. We provide global budgets of oxalate, sulfate, and iron-containing aerosols, along with an analysis of the links among atmospheric composition, aqueous-phase processes, and aerosol dissolution, supported by comparison to observations. This work is a first step towards an interactive calculation of the deposition of bioavailable atmospheric iron coupled to the model’s ocean component.
Santos J. González-Rojí, Martina Messmer, Christoph C. Raible, and Thomas F. Stocker
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2859–2879,Short summary
Different configurations of physics parameterizations of a regional climate model are tested over southern Peru at fine resolution. The most challenging regions compared to observational data are the slopes of the Andes. Model configurations for Europe and East Africa are not perfectly suitable for southern Peru. The experiment with the Stony Brook University microphysics scheme and the Grell–Freitas cumulus parameterization provides the most accurate results over Madre de Dios.
Angel Navarro Trastoy, Sebastian Strasser, Lauri Tuppi, Maksym Vasiuta, Markku Poutanen, Torsten Mayer-Gürr, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2763–2771,Short summary
Production of satellite products relies on information from different centers. By coupling a weather model and an orbit determination solver we eliminate the dependence on one of the centers. The coupling has proven to be possible in the first stage, where no formatting has been applied to any of the models involved. This opens a window for further development and improvement to a coupling that has proven to be as good as the predecessor model.
Soon-Young Park, Uzzal Kumar Dash, Jinhyeok Yu, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2773–2790,Short summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation and even superior to 3D-Var. The reduced MBs in 24 h predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving ICs and BCs, respectively.
Lars Hoffmann, Paul F. Baumeister, Zhongyin Cai, Jan Clemens, Sabine Griessbach, Gebhard Günther, Yi Heng, Mingzhao Liu, Kaveh Haghighi Mood, Olaf Stein, Nicole Thomas, Bärbel Vogel, Xue Wu, and Ling Zou
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2731–2762,Short summary
We describe the new version (2.2) of the Lagrangian transport model MPTRAC, which has been ported for application on GPUs. The model was verified by comparing kinematic trajectories and synthetic tracer simulations for the free troposphere and stratosphere from GPUs and CPUs. Benchmarking showed a speed-up of a factor of 16 of GPU-enabled simulations compared to CPU-only runs, indicating the great potential of applying GPUs for Lagrangian transport simulations on upcoming HPC systems.
Clemens Spensberger, Trond Thorsteinsson, and Thomas Spengler
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2711–2729,Short summary
In order to understand the atmosphere, we rely on a hierarchy of models ranging from very simple to very complex. Comparing different steps in this hierarchy usually entails comparing different models. Here we combine two such steps that are commonly used in one modelling framework. This makes comparisons both much easier and much more direct.
Abkar, M. and Porté-Agel, F.: A new wind-farm parameterization for large-scale atmospheric models, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 7, 13121, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4907600, 2015a.
Abkar, M. and Porté-Agel, F.: Influence of atmospheric stability on wind-turbine wakes: A large-eddy simulation study, Phys. Fluids, 27, 35104, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4913695, 2015b.
Aitken, M. L., Kosović, B., Mirocha, J. D., and Lundquist, J. K.: Large eddy simulation of wind turbine wake dynamics in the stable boundary layer using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6, 33137, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4885111, 2014.
Baidya Roy, S.: Simulating impacts of wind farms on local hydrometeorology, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 99, 491–498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2010.12.013, 2011.
Barrie, D. B. and Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.: Weather response to a large wind turbine array, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 769–775, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-769-2010, 2010.
Bingöl, F., Mann, J., and Foussekis, D.: Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain, Meteorol. Z., 18, 189–195, https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0368, 2009.
Blahak, U., Goretzki, B., and Meis, J.: A simple parametrisation of drag forces induced by large wind farms for numerical weather prediction models, in: EWEC, Proceedings European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, 20–23 April 2010, Warsaw, Poland, 186–189, 2010.
Bodini, N., Zardi, D., and Lundquist, J. K.: Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2881–2896, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-2881-2017, 2017.
Calaf, M., Meneveau, C., and Meyers, J.: Large eddy simulation study of fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers, Phys. Fluids, 22, 15110, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3291077, 2010.
Carvalho, D., Rocha, A., Gómez-Gesteira, M., and Silva Santos, C.: WRF wind simulation and wind energy production estimates forced by different reanalyses: Comparison with observed data for Portugal, Appl. Energ., 117, 116–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.001, 2014.
Chaboureau, J.-P. and Bechtold, P.: A Simple Cloud Parameterization Derived from Cloud Resolving model Data: Diagnostic and Prognostic Applications, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2362–2372, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2362:ASCPDF>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
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We evaluate the wind farm parameterization (WFP) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a powerful tool to simulate wind farms and their meteorological impacts numerically. In our case study, the WFP simulations with fine vertical grid resolution are skilful in matching the observed winds and the actual power productions. Moreover, the WFP tends to underestimate power in windy conditions. We also illustrate that the modeled wind speed is a critical determinant to improve the WFP.
We evaluate the wind farm parameterization (WFP) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)...