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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2020-327
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2020-327
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: model evaluation paper 29 Oct 2020

Submitted as: model evaluation paper | 29 Oct 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

The Effects of Ocean Surface Waves on Global Forecast in CFS Modeling System v2.0

Ruizi Shi1, Fanghua Xu1, Li Liu1, Zheng Fan1, Hao Yu1, Xiang Li2, and Yunfei Zhang2 Ruizi Shi et al.
  • 1Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, and Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 2Key Laboratory of Marine Hazards Forecasting, National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing, 100081, China

Abstract. It has been well known that ocean surface gravity waves have enormous effects on physical processes at the atmosphere–ocean interface. However, the effects of surface waves on global forecast in several days are less studied. To investigate this, we incorporated the WAVEWATCH III model into the Climate Forecast System Model version 2.0 (CFS2.0), with the Chinese Community Coupler version 2.0 (C-Coupler2). Two major wave-related processes, the Langmuir mixing and the sea surface momentum roughness, were considered. Extensive comparisons were performed against in-situ buoys, satellite measurements and reanalysis data, to evaluate the influence of the two processes on the forecast of sea surface temperature, mixed layer depth, significant wave height, and 10-m wind speed. A series of 7-day simulations demonstrate that the newly developed atmosphere-ocean-wave coupling system could improve the CFS global forecast. The Langmuir mixing parameterization could increase the vertical movement of water and effectively reduce the warm bias of sea surface temperature and shallow bias of mixed layer depth in the Antarctic circumpolar current in austral summer, whereas the significant wave height and 10-m wind speed are insensitive to it. On the other hand, the modified momentum roughness length could significantly reduce the overestimated 10-m wind speed and significant wave height in mid-high latitudes. This is because the enhanced frictional dissipation at high wind speed could reduce 10-m wind speed and consequently decrease the significant wave height. But its effect on the temperature structure in upper ocean is less obvious.

Ruizi Shi et al.

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Short summary
To better understand the effects of surface waves, we developed a coupled global atmosphere-ocean-wave system. Processes of Langmuir circulations and sea surface momentum roughness were considered. Results from a series of 7-day forecasts show the Langmuir circulations can reduce the biases of warm sea surface temperature and shallow mixed layer in the Antarctic circumpolar current during austral summer. Whereas surface roughness enables improvements to overestimated 10-m wind and wave height.
To better understand the effects of surface waves, we developed a coupled global...
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