Articles | Volume 8, issue 9
Methods for assessment of models
28 Sep 2015
Methods for assessment of models |  | 28 Sep 2015

Calculations of the integral invariant coordinates I and L* in the magnetosphere and mapping of the regions where I is conserved, using a particle tracer (ptr3D v2.0), LANL*, SPENVIS, and IRBEM

K. Konstantinidis and T. Sarris


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Latest update: 01 Mar 2024
Short summary
The 2nd & 3rd adiabatic invariants (in particular their proxies I & L*) are commonly used to characterize charged particle motion in a magnetic field. However care should be taken when calculating them, as the assumption of their conservation is not valid everywhere in the Earth’s magnetosphere. In this paper we compare calculations of I and L* using LANLstar, SPENVIS, IRBEM and a 3D particle tracer, and we map the areas in the Earth’s magnetosphere where I & L* can be assumed to be conserved.