Non-singular spherical harmonic expressions of geomagnetic vector and gradient tensor fields in the local north-oriented reference frame
Abstract. General expressions of magnetic vector (MV) and magnetic gradient tensor (MGT) in terms of the first- and second-order derivatives of spherical harmonics at different degrees/orders are relatively complicated and singular at the poles. In this paper, we derived alternative non-singular expressions for the MV, the MGT and also the third-order partial derivatives of the magnetic potential field in the local north-oriented reference frame. Using our newly derived formulae, the magnetic potential, vector and gradient tensor fields and also the third-order partial derivatives of the magnetic potential field at an altitude of 300 km are calculated based on a global lithospheric magnetic field model GRIMM_L120 (GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model, version 0.0) with spherical harmonic degrees 16–90. The corresponding results at the poles are discussed and the validity of the derived formulas is verified using the Laplace equation of the magnetic potential field.