Description and basic evaluation of Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-ESM) version 1
Abstract. An earth system model has been developed at Beijing Normal University (Beijing Normal University Earth System Model, BNU-ESM); the model is based on several widely evaluated climate model components and is used to study mechanisms of ocean-atmosphere interactions, natural climate variability and carbon-climate feedbacks at interannual to interdecadal time scales. In this paper, the model structure and individual components are described briefly. Further, results for the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) pre-industrial control and historical simulations are presented to demonstrate the model's performance in terms of the mean model state and the internal variability. It is illustrated that BNU-ESM can simulate many observed features of the earth climate system, such as the climatological annual cycle of surface-air temperature and precipitation, annual cycle of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), the overall patterns and positions of cells in global ocean meridional overturning circulation. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated in BNU-ESM exhibits an irregular oscillation between 2 and 5 years with the seasonal phase locking feature of ENSO. Important biases with regard to observations are presented and discussed, including warm SST discrepancies in the major upwelling regions, an equatorward drift of midlatitude westerly wind bands, and tropical precipitation bias over the ocean that is related to the double Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).