Description of a hybrid ice sheet-shelf model, and application to Antarctica
Abstract. The formulation of a 3-D ice sheet-shelf model is described. The model is designed for long-term continental-scale applications, and has been used mostly in paleoclimatic studies. It uses a hybrid combination of the scaled shallow ice and shallow shelf approximations for ice flow. Floating ice shelves and grounding-line migration are included, with parameterized ice fluxes at grounding lines that allows relatively coarse resolutions to be used. All significant components and parameterizations of the model are described in some detail. Basic results for modern Antarctica are compared with observations, and simulations over the last 5 million years are compared with previously published results. The sensitivity of ice volumes during the last deglaciation to basal sliding coefficients is discussed.