Articles | Volume 4, issue 2
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 325–355, 2011

Special issue: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) (ACP/GMD inter-journal...

Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 325–355, 2011

Model description paper 21 Apr 2011

Model description paper | 21 Apr 2011

MADE-in: a new aerosol microphysics submodel for global simulation of insoluble particles and their mixing state

V. Aquila1,*, J. Hendricks1, A. Lauer2, N. Riemer3, H. Vogel4, D. Baumgardner5, A. Minikin1, A. Petzold1, J. P. Schwarz6, J. R. Spackman6, B. Weinzierl1, M. Righi1, and M. Dall'Amico1,** V. Aquila et al.
  • 1Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 2International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
  • 3Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
  • 4Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • 5Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 6Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • *now at: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
  • **now at: Astrium GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany

Abstract. Black carbon (BC) and mineral dust are among the most abundant insoluble aerosol components in the atmosphere. When released, most BC and dust particles are externally mixed with other aerosol species. Through coagulation with particles containing soluble material and condensation of gases, the externally mixed particles may obtain a liquid coating and be transferred into an internal mixture. The mixing state of BC and dust aerosol particles influences their radiative and hygroscopic properties, as well as their ability of forming ice crystals.

We introduce the new aerosol microphysics submodel MADE-in, implemented within the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global model (EMAC). MADE-in is able to track mass and number concentrations of BC and dust particles in their different mixing states, as well as particles free of BC and dust. MADE-in describes these three classes of particles through a superposition of seven log-normally distributed modes, and predicts the evolution of their size distribution and chemical composition. Six out of the seven modes are mutually interacting, allowing for the transfer of mass and number among them. Separate modes for the different mixing states of BC and dust particles in EMAC/MADE-in allow for explicit simulations of the relevant aging processes, i.e. condensation, coagulation and cloud processing. EMAC/MADE-in has been evaluated with surface and airborne measurements and mostly performs well both in the planetary boundary layer and in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.