Articles | Volume 15, issue 13
Model description paper
06 Jul 2022
Model description paper | 06 Jul 2022
CLM5-FruitTree: a new sub-model for deciduous fruit trees in the Community Land Model (CLM5)
Olga Dombrowski et al.
Cosimo Brogi, Heye Reemt Bogena, Markus Köhli, Johan Alexander Huisman, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Olga Dombrowski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 451–469,Short summary
Accurate monitoring of water in soil can improve irrigation efficiency, which is important considering climate change and the growing world population. Cosmic-ray neutrons sensors (CRNSs) are a promising tool in irrigation monitoring due to a larger sensed area and to lower maintenance than other ground-based sensors. Here, we analyse the feasibility of irrigation monitoring with CRNSs and the impact of the irrigated field dimensions, of the variations of water in soil, and of instrument design.
Cosimo Brogi, Heye Reemt Bogena, Markus Köhli, Johan Alexander Huisman, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Olga Dombrowski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 451–469,Short summary
Accurate monitoring of water in soil can improve irrigation efficiency, which is important considering climate change and the growing world population. Cosmic-ray neutrons sensors (CRNSs) are a promising tool in irrigation monitoring due to a larger sensed area and to lower maintenance than other ground-based sensors. Here, we analyse the feasibility of irrigation monitoring with CRNSs and the impact of the irrigated field dimensions, of the variations of water in soil, and of instrument design.
Friedrich Boeing, Oldrich Rakovec, Rohini Kumar, Luis Samaniego, Martin Schrön, Anke Hildebrandt, Corinna Rebmann, Stephan Thober, Sebastian Müller, Steffen Zacharias, Heye Bogena, Katrin Schneider, Ralf Kiese, Sabine Attinger, and Andreas Marx
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5137–5161,Short summary
In this paper, we deliver an evaluation of the second generation operational German drought monitor (https://www.ufz.de/duerremonitor) with a state-of-the-art compilation of observed soil moisture data from 40 locations and four different measurement methods in Germany. We show that the expressed stakeholder needs for higher resolution drought information at the one-kilometer scale can be met and that the agreement of simulated and observed soil moisture dynamics can be moderately improved.
Tanja Denager, Torben O. Sonnenborg, Majken C. Looms, Heye Bogena, and Karsten H. Jensen
This study contribute to improvements in model characterization of water and energy fluxes. The results show that multi-objective auto-calibration in combination with mathematical regularization is powerful to improve land surface models. Land surface energy balance closure is not achieved on observation data. Using direct measurement of turbulent fluxes as target variable, the parameter optimization is matching simulations and observations of latent heat, while sensible heat is clearly biased.
Giulia Zuecco, Anam Amin, Jay Frentress, Michael Engel, Chiara Marchina, Tommaso Anfodillo, Marco Borga, Vinicio Carraro, Francesca Scandellari, Massimo Tagliavini, Damiano Zanotelli, Francesco Comiti, and Daniele Penna
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 3673–3689,Short summary
We analyzed the variability in the isotopic composition of plant water extracted by two different methods, i.e., cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) and Scholander-type pressure chamber (SPC). Our results indicated that the isotopic composition of plant water extracted by CVD and SPC was significantly different. We concluded that plant water extraction by SPC is not an alternative for CVD as SPC mostly extracts the mobile plant water whereas CVD retrieves all water stored in the sampled tissue.
Maik Heistermann, Heye Bogena, Till Francke, Andreas Güntner, Jannis Jakobi, Daniel Rasche, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Benjamin Fersch, Jannis Groh, Amol Patil, Thomas Pütz, Marvin Reich, Steffen Zacharias, Carmen Zengerle, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2501–2519,Short summary
This paper presents a dense network of cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) to measure spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns during a 2-month campaign in the Wüstebach headwater catchment in Germany. Stationary, mobile, and airborne CRNS technology monitored the root-zone water dynamics as well as spatial heterogeneity in the 0.4 km2 area. The 15 CRNS stations were supported by a hydrogravimeter, biomass sampling, and a wireless soil sensor network to facilitate holistic hydrological analysis.
Wei Qu, Heye Bogena, Christoph Schüth, Harry Vereecken, Zongmei Li, and Stephan Schulz
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Publication in GMD not foreseenShort summary
We applied the global sensitivity analysis LH-OAT to the integrated hydrology model ParFlow-CLM to investigate the sensitivity of the 12 parameters for different scenarios. And we found that the general patterns of the parameter sensitivities were consistent, however, for some parameters a significantly larger span of the sensitivities was observed, especially for the higher slope and in subarctic climatic scenarios.
Heye Reemt Bogena, Martin Schrön, Jannis Jakobi, Patrizia Ney, Steffen Zacharias, Mie Andreasen, Roland Baatz, David Boorman, Mustafa Berk Duygu, Miguel Angel Eguibar-Galán, Benjamin Fersch, Till Franke, Josie Geris, María González Sanchis, Yann Kerr, Tobias Korf, Zalalem Mengistu, Arnaud Mialon, Paolo Nasta, Jerzy Nitychoruk, Vassilios Pisinaras, Daniel Rasche, Rafael Rosolem, Hami Said, Paul Schattan, Marek Zreda, Stefan Achleitner, Eduardo Albentosa-Hernández, Zuhal Akyürek, Theresa Blume, Antonio del Campo, Davide Canone, Katya Dimitrova-Petrova, John G. Evans, Stefano Ferraris, Félix Frances, Davide Gisolo, Andreas Güntner, Frank Herrmann, Joost Iwema, Karsten H. Jensen, Harald Kunstmann, Antonio Lidón, Majken Caroline Looms, Sascha Oswald, Andreas Panagopoulos, Amol Patil, Daniel Power, Corinna Rebmann, Nunzio Romano, Lena Scheiffele, Sonia Seneviratne, Georg Weltin, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1125–1151,Short summary
Monitoring of increasingly frequent droughts is a prerequisite for climate adaptation strategies. This data paper presents long-term soil moisture measurements recorded by 66 cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) operated by 24 institutions and distributed across major climate zones in Europe. Data processing followed harmonized protocols and state-of-the-art methods to generate consistent and comparable soil moisture products and to facilitate continental-scale analysis of hydrological extremes.
Lukas Strebel, Heye R. Bogena, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 395–411,Short summary
We present the technical coupling between a land surface model (CLM5) and the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (PDAF). This coupling enables measurement data to update simulated model states and parameters in a statistically optimal way. We demonstrate the viability of the model framework using an application in a forested catchment where the inclusion of soil water measurements significantly improved the simulation quality.
Yafei Huang, Jonas Weis, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Trends in agricultural droughts cannot be easily deduced from measurements. Here trends in agricultural droughts over 31 German and Dutch sites were calculated with model simulations and long-term observed meteorological data as input. We found that agricultural droughts are increasing although precipitation hardly decreases. The increase is driven by increase in evapotranspiration. The year 2018 was for half of the sites the year with the most extreme agricultural drought in the last 55 years.
Wouter Dorigo, Irene Himmelbauer, Daniel Aberer, Lukas Schremmer, Ivana Petrakovic, Luca Zappa, Wolfgang Preimesberger, Angelika Xaver, Frank Annor, Jonas Ardö, Dennis Baldocchi, Marco Bitelli, Günter Blöschl, Heye Bogena, Luca Brocca, Jean-Christophe Calvet, J. Julio Camarero, Giorgio Capello, Minha Choi, Michael C. Cosh, Nick van de Giesen, Istvan Hajdu, Jaakko Ikonen, Karsten H. Jensen, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Ileen de Kat, Gottfried Kirchengast, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Jenni Kyrouac, Kristine Larson, Suxia Liu, Alexander Loew, Mahta Moghaddam, José Martínez Fernández, Cristian Mattar Bader, Renato Morbidelli, Jan P. Musial, Elise Osenga, Michael A. Palecki, Thierry Pellarin, George P. Petropoulos, Isabella Pfeil, Jarrett Powers, Alan Robock, Christoph Rüdiger, Udo Rummel, Michael Strobel, Zhongbo Su, Ryan Sullivan, Torbern Tagesson, Andrej Varlagin, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Jeffrey Walker, Jun Wen, Fred Wenger, Jean Pierre Wigneron, Mel Woods, Kun Yang, Yijian Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Marek Zreda, Stephan Dietrich, Alexander Gruber, Peter van Oevelen, Wolfgang Wagner, Klaus Scipal, Matthias Drusch, and Roberto Sabia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5749–5804,Short summary
The International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) is a community-based open-access data portal for soil water measurements taken at the ground and is accessible at https://ismn.earth. Over 1000 scientific publications and thousands of users have made use of the ISMN. The scope of this paper is to inform readers about the data and functionality of the ISMN and to provide a review of the scientific progress facilitated through the ISMN with the scope to shape future research and operations.
Mengna Li, Yijian Zeng, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Jean Roy, Lianyu Yu, Hui Qian, Zhenyu Li, Jie Chen, Lei Han, Han Zheng, Tom Veldkamp, Jeroen M. Schoorl, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Kai Hou, Qiying Zhang, Panpan Xu, Fan Li, Kai Lu, Yulin Li, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4727–4757,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is the source of most of Asia's major rivers and has been called the Asian Water Tower. Due to its remoteness and the harsh environment, there is a lack of field survey data to investigate its hydrogeology. Borehole core lithology analysis, an altitude survey, soil thickness measurement, hydrogeological surveys, and hydrogeophysical surveys were conducted in the Maqu catchment within the Yellow River source region to improve a full–picture understanding of the water cycle.
Bernd Schalge, Gabriele Baroni, Barbara Haese, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Pablo Saavedra, Vincent Haefliger, Harry Vereecken, Sabine Attinger, Harald Kunstmann, Olaf A. Cirpka, Felix Ament, Stefan Kollet, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Clemens Simmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4437–4464,Short summary
In this study, a 9-year simulation of complete model output of a coupled atmosphere–land-surface–subsurface model on the catchment scale is discussed. We used the Neckar catchment in SW Germany as the basis of this simulation. Since the dataset includes the full model output, it is not only possible to investigate model behavior and interactions between the component models but also use it as a virtual truth for comparison of, for example, data assimilation experiments.
Markus Hrachowitz, Michael Stockinger, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, Ruud van der Ent, Heye Bogena, Andreas Lücke, and Christine Stumpp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4887–4915,Short summary
Deforestation affects how catchments store and release water. Here we found that deforestation in the study catchment led to a 20 % increase in mean runoff, while reducing the vegetation-accessible water storage from about 258 to 101 mm. As a consequence, fractions of young water in the stream increased by up to 25 % during wet periods. This implies that water and solutes are more rapidly routed to the stream, which can, after contamination, lead to increased contaminant peak concentrations.
Cosimo Brogi, Johan A. Huisman, Lutz Weihermüller, Michael Herbst, and Harry Vereecken
SOIL, 7, 125–143,Short summary
There is a need in agriculture for detailed soil maps that carry quantitative information. Geophysics-based soil maps have the potential to deliver such products, but their added value has not been fully investigated yet. In this study, we compare the use of a geophysics-based soil map with the use of two commonly available maps as input for crop growth simulations. The geophysics-based product results in better simulations, with improvements that depend on precipitation, soil, and crop type.
Theresa Boas, Heye Bogena, Thomas Grünwald, Bernard Heinesch, Dongryeol Ryu, Marius Schmidt, Harry Vereecken, Andrew Western, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 573–601,Short summary
In this study we were able to significantly improve CLM5 model performance for European cropland sites by adding a winter wheat representation, specific plant parameterizations for important cash crops, and a cover-cropping and crop rotation subroutine to its crop module. Our modifications should be applied in future studies of CLM5 to improve regional yield predictions and to better understand large-scale impacts of agricultural management on carbon, water, and energy fluxes.
Tim G. Reichenau, Wolfgang Korres, Marius Schmidt, Alexander Graf, Gerhard Welp, Nele Meyer, Anja Stadler, Cosimo Brogi, and Karl Schneider
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2333–2364,
Jie Tian, Zhibo Han, Heye Reemt Bogena, Johan Alexander Huisman, Carsten Montzka, Baoqing Zhang, and Chansheng He
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4659–4674,Short summary
Large-scale profile soil moisture (SM) is important for water resource management, but its estimation is a challenge. Thus, based on in situ SM observations in a cold mountain, a strong relationship between the surface SM and subsurface SM is found. Both the subsurface SM of 10–30 cm and the profile SM of 0–70 cm can be estimated from the surface SM of 0–10 cm accurately. By combing with the satellite product, we improve the large-scale profile SM estimation in the cold mountains finally.
Benjamin Fersch, Till Francke, Maik Heistermann, Martin Schrön, Veronika Döpper, Jannis Jakobi, Gabriele Baroni, Theresa Blume, Heye Bogena, Christian Budach, Tobias Gränzig, Michael Förster, Andreas Güntner, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Mandy Kasner, Markus Köhli, Birgit Kleinschmit, Harald Kunstmann, Amol Patil, Daniel Rasche, Lena Scheiffele, Ulrich Schmidt, Sandra Szulc-Seyfried, Jannis Weimar, Steffen Zacharias, Marek Zreda, Bernd Heber, Ralf Kiese, Vladimir Mares, Hannes Mollenhauer, Ingo Völksch, and Sascha Oswald
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2289–2309,
Michael Paul Stockinger, Heye Reemt Bogena, Andreas Lücke, Christine Stumpp, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4333–4347,Short summary
Precipitation moves through the soil to become stream water. The fraction of precipitation that becomes stream water after 3 months (Fyw) can be calculated with the stable isotopes of water. Previously, this was done for all the isotope data available, e.g., for several years. We used 1 year of data to calculate Fyw and moved this calculation time window over the time series. Results highlight that Fyw varies in time. Comparison studies of different regions should take this into account.
Bibi S. Naz, Wolfgang Kurtz, Carsten Montzka, Wendy Sharples, Klaus Goergen, Jessica Keune, Huilin Gao, Anne Springer, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, and Stefan Kollet
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 277–301,Short summary
This study investigates the value of assimilating coarse-resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data into high-resolution land surface models for improving soil moisture and runoff modeling. The soil moisture estimates in this study, with complete spatio-temporal coverage and improved spatial resolution from the assimilation, offer a new reanalysis product for the monitoring of surface soil water content and other hydrological fluxes at 3 km resolution over Europe.
Hanna Post, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Xujun Han, Roland Baatz, Carsten Montzka, Marius Schmidt, and Harry Vereecken
Biogeosciences, 15, 187–208,Short summary
Estimated values of selected key CLM4.5-BGC parameters obtained with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach DREAM(zs) strongly altered catchment-scale NEE predictions in comparison to global default parameter values. The effect of perturbed meteorological input data on the uncertainty of the predicted carbon fluxes was notably higher for C3-grass and C3-crop than for coniferous and deciduous forest. A future distinction of different crop types including management is considered essential.
Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Lena Scheiffele, Joost Iwema, Heye R. Bogena, Ling Lv, Edoardo Martini, Gabriele Baroni, Rafael Rosolem, Jannis Weimar, Juliane Mai, Matthias Cuntz, Corinna Rebmann, Sascha E. Oswald, Peter Dietrich, Ulrich Schmidt, and Steffen Zacharias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5009–5030,Short summary
A field-scale average of near-surface water content can be sensed by cosmic-ray neutron detectors. To interpret, calibrate, and validate the integral signal, it is important to account for its sensitivity to heterogeneous patterns like dry or wet spots. We show how point samples contribute to the neutron signal based on their depth and distance from the detector. This approach robustly improves the sensor performance and data consistency, and even reveals otherwise hidden hydrological features.
Hongjuan Zhang, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Xujun Han, Jasper A. Vrugt, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4927–4958,Short summary
Applications of data assimilation (DA) arise in many fields of geosciences, perhaps most importantly in weather forecasting and hydrology. We want to investigate the roles of data assimilation methods and land surface models (LSMs) in joint estimation of states and parameters in the assimilation experiments. We find that all DA methods can improve prediction of states, and that differences between DA methods were limited but that the differences between LSMs were much larger.
Roland Baatz, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Xujun Han, Tim Hoar, Heye Reemt Bogena, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2509–2530,Short summary
Soil moisture is a major variable that affects regional climate, weather and hydrologic processes on the Earth's surface. In this study, real-world data of a network of cosmic-ray sensors were assimilated into a regional land surface model to improve model states and soil hydraulic parameters. The results show the potential of these networks for improving model states and parameters. It is suggested to widen the number of observed variables and to increase the number of estimated parameters.
Mie Andreasen, Karsten H. Jensen, Darin Desilets, Marek Zreda, Heye R. Bogena, and Majken C. Looms
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1875–1894,Short summary
The cosmic-ray method holds a potential for quantifying canopy interception and biomass. We use measurements and modeling of thermal and epithermal neutron intensity in a forest to examine this potential. Canopy interception is a variable important to forest hydrology, yet difficult to monitor remotely. Forest growth impacts the carbon-cycle and can be used to mitigate climate changes by carbon sequestration in biomass. An efficient method to monitor tree growth is therefore of high relevance.
Bernd Schalge, Jehan Rihani, Gabriele Baroni, Daniel Erdal, Gernot Geppert, Vincent Haefliger, Barbara Haese, Pablo Saavedra, Insa Neuweiler, Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen, Felix Ament, Sabine Attinger, Olaf A. Cirpka, Stefan Kollet, Harald Kunstmann, Harry Vereecken, and Clemens Simmer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
In this work we show how we used a coupled atmosphere-land surface-subsurface model at highest possible resolution to create a testbed for data assimilation. The model was able to capture all important processes and interactions between the compartments as well as showing realistic statistical behavior. This proves that using a model as a virtual truth is possible and it will enable us to develop data assimilation methods where states and parameters are updated across compartment.
Wei Qu, Heye R. Bogena, Johan A. Huisman, Marius Schmidt, Ralf Kunkel, Ansgar Weuthen, Henning Schiedung, Bernd Schilling, Jürgen Sorg, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 517–529,Short summary
The Rollesbroich catchment is a hydrological observatory of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) initiative. Hydrometeorological data and spatiotemporal variations in soil water content are measured at high temporal resolution and can be used for many purposes, e.g. validation of remote sensing retrievals, improving hydrological understanding, optimizing data assimilation and inverse modelling techniques. The data set is freely available online (http://www.tereno.net).
Wolfgang Kurtz, Guowei He, Stefan J. Kollet, Reed M. Maxwell, Harry Vereecken, and Harrie-Jan Hendricks Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1341–1360,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a modular data assimilation (DA) system for the integrated Earth system model TerrSysMP with the help of the PDAF data assimilation library. Currently, pressure and soil moisture data can be used to update model states and parameters in the subsurface compartment of TerrSysMP. Results from an idealized twin experiment show that the developed DA system provides a good parallel performance and is also applicable for high-resolution modelling problems.
X. Han, X. Li, G. He, P. Kumbhar, C. Montzka, S. Kollet, T. Miyoshi, R. Rosolem, Y. Zhang, H. Vereecken, and H.-J. H. Franssen
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
DasPy is a ready to use open source parallel multivariate land data assimilation framework with joint state and parameter estimation using Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. The Community Land Model (4.5) was integrated as model operator. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code and the Two-Source Formulation were integrated as observation operators for the multivariate assimilation of soil moisture and soil temperature, respectively.
J. Iwema, R. Rosolem, R. Baatz, T. Wagener, and H. R. Bogena
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3203–3216,Short summary
The cosmic-ray neutron sensor can provide soil moisture content averages over areas of roughly half a kilometre by half a kilometre. Although this sensor is usually calibrated using soil samples taken on a single day, we found that multiple sampling days are needed. The calibration results were also affected by the soil wetness conditions of the sampling days. The outcome of this study will help researchers to calibrate/validate new cosmic-ray neutron sensor sites more accurately.
E. Varolo, D. Zanotelli, M. Tagliavini, S. Zerbe, and L. Montagnani
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Vegetation growth after glaciers retreat can be an important feedback to increasing atmospheric CO2. We monitored, with transparent and opaque chambers, the carbon fluxes of two vegetation communities on an alpine glacier forefield over two growing seasons. We showed that different plant physiology determines the sign of the net carbon exchange. A C3 grassland, having higher assimilation rates, was a net CO2 sink, while CAM rosettes were a net source.
S. Gebler, H.-J. Hendricks Franssen, T. Pütz, H. Post, M. Schmidt, and H. Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2145–2161,
H. Post, H. J. Hendricks Franssen, A. Graf, M. Schmidt, and H. Vereecken
Biogeosciences, 12, 1205–1221,Short summary
This study introduces an extension of the classical two-tower approach for uncertainty estimation of measured net CO2 fluxes (NEE). Because land surface properties cannot be assumed identical at two eddy covariance towers, a correction for systematic flux differences is proposed to be added to the classical weather filter. With this extension, the overestimation of NEE uncertainty due to systematic flux differences (which are assumed to increase with tower distance) can considerably be reduced.
X. Han, H.-J. H. Franssen, R. Rosolem, R. Jin, X. Li, and H. Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 615–629,Short summary
This paper presents the joint assimilation of cosmic-ray neutron counts and land surface temperature with parameter estimation of leaf area index at an irrigated corn field. The results show that the data assimilation can reduce the systematic input errors due to the lack of irrigation data. The estimations of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and leaf area index can be improved in the joint assimilation framework.
W. Kurtz, H.-J. Hendricks Franssen, P. Brunner, and H. Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3795–3813,
V. R. N. Pauwels, G. J. M. De Lannoy, H.-J. Hendricks Franssen, and H. Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3499–3521,
D. Zanotelli, L. Montagnani, G. Manca, and M. Tagliavini
Biogeosciences, 10, 3089–3108,
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Onur Kerimoglu, Markus Pahlow, Prima Anugerahanti, and Sherwood Lan Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 95–108,Short summary
In classical models that track the changes in the elemental composition of phytoplankton, additional state variables are required for each element resolved. In this study, we show how the behavior of such an explicit model can be approximated using an
instantaneous acclimationapproach, in which the elemental composition of the phytoplankton is assumed to adjust to an optimal value instantaneously. Through rigorous tests, we evaluate the consistency of this scheme.
Yuan Zhang, Devaraju Narayanappa, Philippe Ciais, Wei Li, Daniel Goll, Nicolas Vuichard, Martin G. De Kauwe, Laurent Li, and Fabienne Maignan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 9111–9125,Short summary
There are a few studies to examine if current models correctly represented the complex processes of transpiration. Here, we use a coefficient Ω, which indicates if transpiration is mainly controlled by vegetation processes or by turbulence, to evaluate the ORCHIDEE model. We found a good performance of ORCHIDEE, but due to compensation of biases in different processes, we also identified how different factors control Ω and where the model is wrong. Our method is generic to evaluate other models.
Thomas Neumann, Hagen Radtke, Bronwyn Cahill, Martin Schmidt, and Gregor Rehder
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8473–8540,Short summary
Marine ecosystem models are usually constrained by the elements nitrogen and phosphorus and consider carbon in organic matter in a fixed ratio. Recent observations show a substantial deviation from the simulated carbon cycle variables. In this study, we present a marine ecosystem model for the Baltic Sea which allows for a flexible uptake ratio for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. With this extension, the model reflects much more reasonable variables of the marine carbon cycle.
Arsène Druel, Simon Munier, Anthony Mucia, Clément Albergel, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8453–8471,Short summary
Crop phenology and irrigation is implemented into a land surface model able to work at a global scale. A case study is presented over Nebraska (USA). Simulations with and without the new scheme are compared to different satellite-based observations. The model is able to produce a realistic yearly irrigation water amount. The irrigation scheme improves the simulated leaf area index, gross primary productivity, evapotransipiration, and land surface temperature.
Thomas Wutzler, Lin Yu, Marion Schrumpf, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8377–8393,Short summary
Soil microbes process soil organic matter and affect carbon storage and plant nutrition at the ecosystem scale. We hypothesized that decadal dynamics is constrained by the ratios of elements in litter inputs, microbes, and matter and that microbial community optimizes growth. This allowed the SESAM model to descibe decadal-term carbon sequestration in soils and other biogeochemical processes explicitly accounting for microbial processes but without its problematic fine-scale parameterization.
Ensheng Weng, Igor Aleinov, Ram Singh, Michael J. Puma, Sonali S. McDermid, Nancy Y. Kiang, Maxwell Kelley, Kevin Wilcox, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, Stephen W. Pacala, and Benjamin I. Cook
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8153–8180,Short summary
We develop a demographic vegetation model to improve the representation of terrestrial vegetation dynamics and ecosystem biogeochemical cycles in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. The individual-based competition for light and soil resources makes the modeling of eco-evolutionary optimality possible. This model will enable ModelE to simulate long-term biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks between the climate system and land ecosystems at decadal to centurial temporal scales.
Yitong Yao, Emilie Joetzjer, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Fabio Cresto Aleina, Jerome Chave, Lawren Sack, Megan Bartlett, Patrick Meir, Rosie Fisher, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7809–7833,Short summary
To facilitate more mechanistic modeling of drought effects on forest dynamics, our study implements a hydraulic module to simulate the vertical water flow, change in water storage and percentage loss of stem conductance (PLC). With the relationship between PLC and tree mortality, our model can successfully reproduce the large biomass drop observed under throughfall exclusion. Our hydraulic module provides promising avenues benefiting the prediction for mortality under future drought events.
Arthur Nicolaus Fendrich, Philippe Ciais, Emanuele Lugato, Marco Carozzi, Bertrand Guenet, Pasquale Borrelli, Victoria Naipal, Matthew McGrath, Philippe Martin, and Panos Panagos
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7835–7857,Short summary
Currently, spatially explicit models for soil carbon stock can simulate the impacts of several changes. However, they do not incorporate the erosion, lateral transport, and deposition (ETD) of soil material. The present work developed ETD formulation, illustrated model calibration and validation for Europe, and presented the results for a depositional site. We expect that our work advances ETD models' description and facilitates their reproduction and incorporation in land surface models.
Kazumi Ozaki, Devon B. Cole, Christopher T. Reinhard, and Eiichi Tajika
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7593–7639,Short summary
A new biogeochemical model (CANOPS-GRB v1.0) for assessing the redox stability and dynamics of the ocean–atmosphere system on geologic timescales has been developed. In this paper, we present a full description of the model and its performance. CANOPS-GRB is a useful tool for understanding the factors regulating atmospheric O2 level and has the potential to greatly refine our current understanding of Earth's oxygenation history.
Félicien Meunier, Wim Verbruggen, Hans Verbeeck, and Marc Peaucelle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7573–7591,Short summary
Drought stress occurs in plants when water supply (i.e. root water uptake) is lower than the water demand (i.e. atmospheric demand). It is strongly related to soil properties and expected to increase in intensity and frequency in the tropics due to climate change. In this study, we show that contrary to the expectations, state-of-the-art terrestrial biosphere models are mostly insensitive to soil texture and hence probably inadequate to reproduce in silico the plant water status in drying soils.
Stanley I. Nmor, Eric Viollier, Lucie Pastor, Bruno Lansard, Christophe Rabouille, and Karline Soetaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7325–7351,Short summary
The coastal marine environment serves as a transition zone in the land–ocean continuum and is susceptible to episodic phenomena such as flash floods, which cause massive organic matter deposition. Here, we present a model of sediment early diagenesis that explicitly describes this type of deposition while also incorporating unique flood deposit characteristics. This model can be used to investigate the temporal evolution of marine sediments following abrupt changes in environmental conditions.
Shanlin Tong, Weiguang Wang, Jie Chen, Chong-Yu Xu, Hisashi Sato, and Guoqing Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7075–7098,Short summary
Plant carbon storage potential is central to moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration buildup and mitigation of climate change. There is an ongoing debate about the main driver of carbon storage. To reconcile this discrepancy, we use SEIB-DGVM to investigate the trend and response mechanism of carbon stock fractions among water limitation regions. Results show that the impact of CO2 and temperature on carbon stock depends on water limitation, offering a new perspective on carbon–water coupling.
Jing Fang, Herman H. Shugart, Feng Liu, Xiaodong Yan, Yunkun Song, and Fucheng Lv
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6863–6872,Short summary
Our study provided a detailed description and a package of an individual tree-based carbon model, FORCCHN2. This model used non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) pools to couple tree growth and phenology. The model could reproduce daily carbon fluxes across Northern Hemisphere forests. Given the potential importance of the application of this model, there is substantial scope for using FORCCHN2 in fields as diverse as forest ecology, climate change, and carbon estimation.
Johannes Oberpriller, Christine Herschlein, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Andreas Krause, Anja Rammig, Mats Lindeskog, Stefan Olin, and Florian Hartig
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6495–6519,Short summary
Understanding uncertainties of projected ecosystem dynamics under environmental change is of immense value for research and climate change policy. Here, we analyzed these across European forests. We find that uncertainties are dominantly induced by parameters related to water, mortality, and climate, with an increasing importance of climate from north to south. These results highlight that climate not only contributes uncertainty but also modifies uncertainties in other ecosystem processes.
Rui Ying, Fanny M. Monteiro, Jamie D. Wilson, and Daniela N. Schmidt
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Planktic foraminifera are marine calcifying zooplankton and their shell are widely used as to measure past temperature and productivity. Here we developed ForamECOGENIE model to simulate the four subgroups of this organism. We found the relative abundance distribution agrees with core top data and carbon flux is comparable to sediment trap observation. This model provides opportunity to study foraminifera ecology in any geological time.
Marcus Falls, Raffaele Bernardello, Miguel Castrillo, Mario Acosta, Joan Llort, and Martí Galí
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5713–5737,Short summary
This paper describes and tests a method which uses a genetic algorithm (GA), a type of optimisation algorithm, on an ocean biogeochemical model. The aim is to produce a set of numerical parameters that best reflect the observed data of particulate organic carbon in a specific region of the ocean. We show that the GA can provide optimised model parameters in a robust and efficient manner and can also help detect model limitations, ultimately leading to a reduction in the model uncertainties.
Julien Ruffault, François Pimont, Hervé Cochard, Jean-Luc Dupuy, and Nicolas Martin-StPaul
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5593–5626,Short summary
A widespread increase in tree mortality has been observed around the globe, and this trend is likely to continue because of ongoing climate change. Here we present SurEau-Ecos, a trait-based plant hydraulic model to predict tree desiccation and mortality. SurEau-Ecos can help determine the areas and ecosystems that are most vulnerable to drying conditions.
Rebecca J. Oliver, Lina M. Mercado, Doug B. Clark, Chris Huntingford, Christopher M. Taylor, Pier Luigi Vidale, Patrick C. McGuire, Markus Todt, Sonja Folwell, Valiyaveetil Shamsudheen Semeena, and Belinda E. Medlyn
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5567–5592,Short summary
We introduce new representations of plant physiological processes into a land surface model. Including new biological understanding improves modelled carbon and water fluxes for the present in tropical and northern-latitude forests. Future climate simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of photosynthesis to temperature is important for modelling carbon cycle dynamics in a warming world. Accurate representation of these processes in models is necessary for robust predictions of climate change.
Mahdi André Nakhavali, Lina M. Mercado, Iain P. Hartley, Stephen Sitch, Fernanda V. Cunha, Raffaello di Ponzio, Laynara F. Lugli, Carlos A. Quesada, Kelly M. Andersen, Sarah E. Chadburn, Andy J. Wiltshire, Douglas B. Clark, Gyovanni Ribeiro, Lara Siebert, Anna C. M. Moraes, Jéssica Schmeisk Rosa, Rafael Assis, and José L. Camargo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5241–5269,Short summary
In tropical ecosystems, the availability of rock-derived elements such as P can be very low. Thus, without a representation of P cycling, tropical forest responses to rising atmospheric CO2 conditions in areas such as Amazonia remain highly uncertain. We introduced P dynamics and its interactions with the N and P cycles into the JULES model. Our results highlight the potential for high P limitation and therefore lower CO2 fertilization capacity in the Amazon forest with low-fertility soils.
Jiaying Zhang, Rafael L. Bras, Marcos Longo, and Tamara Heartsill Scalley
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5107–5126,Short summary
We implemented hurricane disturbance in a vegetation dynamics model and calibrated the model with observations of a tropical forest. We used the model to study forest recovery from hurricane disturbance and found that a single hurricane disturbance enhances AGB and BA in the long term compared with a no-hurricane situation. The model developed and results presented in this study can be utilized to understand the impact of hurricane disturbances on forest recovery under the changing climate.
Prabhat Raj Dahal, Maria Lumbierres, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Paul F. Donald, and Carlo Rondinini
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5093–5105,Short summary
This paper describes the validation of area of habitat (AOH) maps produced for terrestrial birds and mammals. The main objective was to assess the accuracy of the maps based on independent data. We used open access data from repositories, such as ebird and gbif to check if our maps were a better reflection of species' distribution than random. When points were not available we used logistic models to validate the AOH maps. The majority of AOH maps were found to have a high accuracy.
Yoshiki Kanzaki, Shuang Zhang, Noah J. Planavsky, and Christopher T. Reinhard
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4959–4990,Short summary
Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is an urgent issue in the coming century. Enhanced rock weathering in soils can be one of the most efficient C capture strategies. On the basis as a weathering simulator, the newly developed SCEPTER model implements bio-mixing by fauna/humans and enables organic matter and crushed rocks/minerals at the soil surface with an option to track their particle size distributions. Those features can be useful for evaluating the carbon capture efficiency.
Félicien Meunier, Sruthi M. Krishna Moorthy, Marc Peaucelle, Kim Calders, Louise Terryn, Wim Verbruggen, Chang Liu, Ninni Saarinen, Niall Origo, Joanne Nightingale, Mathias Disney, Yadvinder Malhi, and Hans Verbeeck
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4783–4803,Short summary
We integrated state-of-the-art observations of the structure of the vegetation in a temperate forest to constrain a vegetation model that aims to reproduce such an ecosystem in silico. We showed that the use of this information helps to constrain the model structure, its critical parameters, as well as its initial state. This research confirms the critical importance of the representation of the vegetation structure in vegetation models and proposes a method to overcome this challenge.
Joe R. Melton, Ed Chan, Koreen Millard, Matthew Fortier, R. Scott Winton, Javier M. Martín-López, Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz, Darren Kidd, and Louis V. Verchot
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4709–4738,Short summary
Peat-ML is a high-resolution global peatland extent map generated using machine learning techniques. Peatlands are important in the global carbon and water cycles, but their extent is poorly known. We generated Peat-ML using drivers of peatland formation including climate, soil, geomorphology, and vegetation data, and we train the model with regional peatland maps. Our accuracy estimation approaches suggest Peat-ML is of similar or higher quality than other available peatland mapping products.
Qianyu Li, Shawn P. Serbin, Julien Lamour, Kenneth J. Davidson, Kim S. Ely, and Alistair Rogers
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4313–4329,Short summary
Stomatal conductance is the rate of water release from leaves’ pores. We implemented an optimal stomatal conductance model in a vegetation model. We then tested and compared it with the existing empirical model in terms of model responses to key environmental variables. We also evaluated the model with measurements at a tropical forest site. Our study suggests that the parameterization of conductance models and current model response to drought are the critical areas for improving models.
Veli Çağlar Yumruktepe, Annette Samuelsen, and Ute Daewel
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3901–3921,Short summary
We describe the coupled bio-physical model ECOSMO II(CHL), which is used for regional configurations for the North Atlantic and the Arctic hind-casting and operational purposes. The model is consistent with the large-scale climatological nutrient settings and is capable of representing regional and seasonal changes, and model primary production agrees with previous measurements. For the users of this model, this paper provides the underlying science, model evaluation and its development.
Nicolas Azaña Schnedler-Meyer, Tobias Kuhlmann Andersen, Fenjuan Rose Schmidt Hu, Karsten Bolding, Anders Nielsen, and Dennis Trolle
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3861–3878,Short summary
We present the Water Ecosystems Tool (WET) – a new modular aquatic ecosystem model configurable to a wide array of physical setups, ecosystems and research questions based on the popular FABM–PCLake model. We aim for the model to become a community staple, thus helping to consolidate the state of the art under a few flexible models, with the aim of improving comparability across studies and preventing the
re-inventions of the wheelthat are common to our scientific modeling community.
Hamze Dokoohaki, Bailey D. Morrison, Ann Raiho, Shawn P. Serbin, Katie Zarada, Luke Dramko, and Michael Dietze
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3233–3252,Short summary
We present a new terrestrial carbon cycle data assimilation system, built on the PEcAn model–data eco-informatics system, and its application for the development of a proof-of-concept carbon
reanalysisproduct that harmonizes carbon pools (leaf, wood, soil) and fluxes (GPP, Ra, Rh, NEE) across the contiguous United States from 1986–2019. Here, we build on a decade of work on uncertainty propagation to generate the most complete and robust uncertainty accounting available to date.
Hisashi Sato and Takeshi Ise
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3121–3132,Short summary
Accurately predicting global coverage of terrestrial biome is one of the earliest ecological concerns, and many empirical schemes have been proposed to characterize their relationship. Here, we demonstrate an accurate and practical method to construct empirical models for operational biome mapping via a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach.
Licheng Liu, Shaoming Xu, Jinyun Tang, Kaiyu Guan, Timothy J. Griffis, Matthew D. Erickson, Alexander L. Frie, Xiaowei Jia, Taegon Kim, Lee T. Miller, Bin Peng, Shaowei Wu, Yufeng Yang, Wang Zhou, Vipin Kumar, and Zhenong Jin
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2839–2858,Short summary
By incorporating the domain knowledge into a machine learning model, KGML-ag overcomes the well-known limitations of process-based models due to insufficient representations and constraints, and unlocks the “black box” of machine learning models. Therefore, KGML-ag can outperform existing approaches on capturing the hot moment and complex dynamics of N2O flux. This study will be a critical reference for the new generation of modeling paradigm for biogeochemistry and other geoscience processes.
Elodie Salmon, Fabrice Jégou, Bertrand Guenet, Line Jourdain, Chunjing Qiu, Vladislav Bastrikov, Christophe Guimbaud, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Philippe Peylin, Sébastien Gogo, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Mika Aurela, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Jiquan Chen, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Housen Chu, Colin W. Edgar, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Krzysztof Fortuniak, David Holl, Janina Klatt, Olaf Kolle, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Annalea Lohila, Lutz Merbold, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Torsten Sachs, and Klaudia Ziemblińska
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2813–2838,Short summary
A methane model that features methane production and transport by plants, the ebullition process and diffusion in soil, oxidation to CO2, and CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere has been embedded in the ORCHIDEE-PEAT land surface model, which includes an explicit representation of northern peatlands. This model, ORCHIDEE-PCH4, was calibrated and evaluated on 14 peatland sites. Results show that the model is sensitive to temperature and substrate availability over the top 75 cm of soil depth.
Suman Halder, Susanne K. M. Arens, Kai Jensen, Tais W. Dahl, and Philipp Porada
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2325–2343,Short summary
A dynamic vegetation model, designed to estimate potential impacts of early vascular vegetation, namely, lycopsids, on the biogeochemical cycle at a local scale. Lycopsid Model (LYCOm) estimates the productivity and physiological properties of lycopsids across a broad climatic range along with natural selection, which is then utilized to adjudge their weathering potential. It lays the foundation for estimation of their impacts during their long evolutionary history starting from the Ordovician.
Dóra Hidy, Zoltán Barcza, Roland Hollós, Laura Dobor, Tamás Ács, Dóra Zacháry, Tibor Filep, László Pásztor, Dóra Incze, Márton Dencső, Eszter Tóth, Katarína Merganičová, Peter Thornton, Steven Running, and Nándor Fodor
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2157–2181,Short summary
Biogeochemical models used by the scientific community can support society in the quantification of the expected environmental impacts caused by global climate change. The Biome-BGCMuSo v6.2 biogeochemical model has been created by implementing a lot of developments related to soil hydrology as well as the soil carbon and nitrogen cycle and by integrating crop model components. Detailed descriptions of developments with case studies are presented in this paper.
Lei Ma, George Hurtt, Lesley Ott, Ritvik Sahajpal, Justin Fisk, Rachel Lamb, Hao Tang, Steve Flanagan, Louise Chini, Abhishek Chatterjee, and Joseph Sullivan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1971–1994,Short summary
We present a global version of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model which can track vegetation 3-D structure and scale up ecological processes from individual vegetation to ecosystem scale. Model evaluation against multiple benchmarking datasets demonstrated the model’s capability to simulate global vegetation dynamics across a range of temporal and spatial scales. With this version, ED has the potential to be linked with remote sensing observations to address key scientific questions.
Ignacio Hermoso de Mendoza, Etienne Boucher, Fabio Gennaretti, Aliénor Lavergne, Robert Field, and Laia Andreu-Hayles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1931–1952,Short summary
We modify the numerical model of forest growth MAIDENiso by explicitly simulating snow. This allows us to use the model in boreal environments, where snow is dominant. We tested the performance of the model before and after adding snow, using it at two Canadian sites to simulate tree-ring isotopes and comparing with local observations. We found that modelling snow improves significantly the simulation of the hydrological cycle, the plausibility of the model and the simulated isotopes.
Toni Viskari, Janne Pusa, Istem Fer, Anna Repo, Julius Vira, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1735–1752,Short summary
We wanted to examine how the chosen measurement data and calibration process affect soil organic carbon model calibration. In our results we found that there is a benefit in using data from multiple litter-bag decomposition experiments simultaneously, even with the required assumptions. Additionally, due to the amount of noise and uncertainties in the system, more advanced calibration methods should be used to parameterize the models.
Glenn E. Hammond
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1659–1676,Short summary
This paper describes a simplified interface for implementing and testing new chemical reactions within the reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN. The paper describes the interface, providing example code for the interface. The paper includes several chemical reactions implemented through the interface.
Sarah E. Chadburn, Eleanor J. Burke, Angela V. Gallego-Sala, Noah D. Smith, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Dan J. Charman, Julia Drewer, Colin W. Edgar, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Yao Gao, Mahdi Nakhavali, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Edward A. G. Schuur, and Sebastian Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1633–1657,Short summary
We present a new method to include peatlands in an Earth system model (ESM). Peatlands store huge amounts of carbon that accumulates very slowly but that can be rapidly destabilised, emitting greenhouse gases. Our model captures the dynamic nature of peat by simulating the change in surface height and physical properties of the soil as carbon is added or decomposed. Thus, we model, for the first time in an ESM, peat dynamics and its threshold behaviours that can lead to destabilisation.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
Nils Wallenberg, Fredrik Lindberg, and David Rayner
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1107–1128,Short summary
Exposure to solar radiation on clear and warm days can lead to heat stress and thermal discomfort. This can be alleviated by planting trees providing shade in particularly warm areas. Here, we use a model to locate trees and optimize their blocking of solar radiation. Our results show that locations can differ depending, e.g., tree size (juvenile or mature) and number of trees that are positioned simultaneously. The model is available as a tool for accessibility by researchers and others.
Kai Wang, Xiujun Wang, Raghu Murtugudde, Dongxiao Zhang, and Rong-Hua Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1017–1035,Short summary
We use observational data of dissolved oxygen (DO) and organic nitrogen to calibrate a basin-scale model (OGCM-DEMC V1.4) and then evaluate model capacity for simulating mid-depth DO in the tropical Pacific. Sensitivity studies show that enhanced vertical mixing combined with reduced biological consumption performs well in reproducing asymmetric oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We find that DO is more sensitive to biological processes in the upper OMZs but to physical processes in the lower OMZs.
Pedro Duarte, Philipp Assmy, Karley Campbell, and Arild Sundfjord
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 841–857,Short summary
Sea ice modeling is an important part of Earth system models (ESMs). The results of ESMs are used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their reports. In this study we present an improvement to calculate the exchange of nutrients between the ocean and the sea ice. This nutrient exchange is an essential process to keep the ice-associated ecosystem functioning. We found out that previous calculation methods may underestimate the primary production of the ice-associated ecosystem.
Jianyong Ma, Stefan Olin, Peter Anthoni, Sam S. Rabin, Anita D. Bayer, Sylvia S. Nyawira, and Almut Arneth
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 815–839,Short summary
The implementation of the biological N fixation process in LPJ-GUESS in this study provides an opportunity to quantify N fixation rates between legumes and to better estimate grain legume production on a global scale. It also helps to predict and detect the potential contribution of N-fixing plants as
green manureto reducing or removing the use of N fertilizer in global agricultural systems, considering different climate conditions, management practices, and land-use change scenarios.
Giannis Sofiadis, Eleni Katragkou, Edouard L. Davin, Diana Rechid, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudre, Marcus Breil, Rita M. Cardoso, Peter Hoffmann, Lisa Jach, Ronny Meier, Priscilla A. Mooney, Pedro M. M. Soares, Susanna Strada, Merja H. Tölle, and Kirsten Warrach Sagi
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 595–616,Short summary
Afforestation is currently promoted as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. In our study, we examine the differences in soil temperature and moisture between grounds covered either by forests or grass. The main conclusion emerged is that forest-covered grounds are cooler but drier than open lands in summer. Therefore, afforestation disrupts the seasonal cycle of soil temperature, which in turn could trigger changes in crucial chemical processes such as soil carbon sequestration.
Wei Zhi, Yuning Shi, Hang Wen, Leila Saberi, Gene-Hua Crystal Ng, Kayalvizhi Sadayappan, Devon Kerins, Bryn Stewart, and Li Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 315–333,Short summary
Watersheds are the fundamental Earth surface functioning unit that connects the land to aquatic systems. Here we present the recently developed BioRT-Flux-PIHM v1.0, a watershed-scale biogeochemical reactive transport model, to improve our ability to understand and predict solute export and water quality. The model has been verified against the benchmark code CrunchTope and has recently been applied to understand reactive transport processes in multiple watersheds of different conditions.
Huilin Huang, Yongkang Xue, Ye Liu, Fang Li, and Gregory S. Okin
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7639–7657,Short summary
This study applies a fire-coupled dynamic vegetation model to quantify fire impact at monthly to annual scales. We find fire reduces grass cover by 4–8 % annually for widespread areas in south African savanna and reduces tree cover by 1 % at the periphery of tropical Congolese rainforest. The grass cover reduction peaks at the beginning of the rainy season, which quickly diminishes before the next fire season. In contrast, the reduction of tree cover is irreversible within one growing season.
Karin Kvale, David P. Keller, Wolfgang Koeve, Katrin J. Meissner, Christopher J. Somes, Wanxuan Yao, and Andreas Oschlies
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7255–7285,Short summary
We present a new model of biological marine silicate cycling for the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). This new model adds diatoms, which are a key aspect of the biological carbon pump, to an existing ecosystem model. Our modifications change how the model responds to warming, with net primary production declining more strongly than in previous versions. Diatoms in particular are simulated to decline with climate warming due to their high nutrient requirements.
Shannon de Roos, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, and Dirk Raes
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7309–7328,Short summary
A spatially distributed version of the field-scale crop model AquaCrop v6.1 was developed for applications at various spatial scales. Multi-year 1 km simulations over central Europe were evaluated against biomass and surface soil moisture products derived from optical and microwave satellite missions, as well as in situ observations of soil moisture. The regional version of the AquaCrop model provides a suitable setup for subsequent satellite-based data assimilation.
Philip Pika, Dominik Hülse, and Sandra Arndt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7155–7174,Short summary
OMEN-SED is a model for early diagenesis in marine sediments simulating organic matter (OM) degradation and nutrient dynamics. We replaced the original description with a more realistic one accounting for the widely observed decrease in OM reactivity. The new model reproduces pore water profiles and sediment–water interface fluxes across different environments. This functionality extends the model’s applicability to a broad range of environments and timescales while requiring fewer parameters.
Yujie Wang, Philipp Köhler, Liyin He, Russell Doughty, Renato K. Braghiere, Jeffrey D. Wood, and Christian Frankenberg
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6741–6763,Short summary
We present the first step in testing a new land model as part of a new Earth system model. Our model links plant hydraulics, stomatal optimization theory, and a comprehensive canopy radiation scheme. We compared model-predicted carbon and water fluxes to flux tower observations and model-predicted sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence to satellite retrievals. Our model quantitatively predicted the carbon and water fluxes as well as the canopy fluorescence yield.
Aguilera, E., Guzmán, G., and Alonso, A.: Greenhouse gas emissions from conventional and organic cropping systems in Spain. II. Fruit tree orchards, Agron. Sustain. Dev., 35, 725–737, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-014-0265-y, 2015.
Allen, M., Prusinkiewicz, P., and DeJong, T.: Using L-systems for modeling source–sink interactions, architecture and physiology of growing trees: the L-PEACH model, New Phytol., 166, 869–880, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01348.x, 2005.
Anderson, J., Richardson, E., and Kesner, C.: Validation of chill unit and flower bud phenology models for “Montmorency” sour cherry, I International Symposium on Computer Modelling in Fruit Research and Orchard Management, Hohenheim, Germany, 1 May 1986, Acta Hortic., 184, 71–78, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1986.184.7, 1986.
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Soil carbon storage and food production of fruit orchards will be influenced by climate change. However, they lack representation in models that study such processes. We developed and tested a new sub-model, CLM5-FruitTree, that describes growth, biomass distribution, and management practices in orchards. The model satisfactorily predicted yield and exchange of carbon, energy, and water in an apple orchard and can be used to study land surface processes in fruit orchards at different scales.
Soil carbon storage and food production of fruit orchards will be influenced by climate change....