Articles | Volume 10, issue 2
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671, 2017

Special issue: Chemistry–Climate Modelling Initiative (CCMI) (ACP/AMT/ESSD/GMD...

Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671, 2017
Review and perspective paper
13 Feb 2017
Review and perspective paper | 13 Feb 2017

Review of the global models used within phase 1 of the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI)

Olaf Morgenstern1, Michaela I. Hegglin2, Eugene Rozanov18,5, Fiona M. O'Connor14, N. Luke Abraham17,20, Hideharu Akiyoshi8, Alexander T. Archibald17,20, Slimane Bekki21, Neal Butchart14, Martyn P. Chipperfield16, Makoto Deushi15, Sandip S. Dhomse16, Rolando R. Garcia7, Steven C. Hardiman14, Larry W. Horowitz13, Patrick Jöckel10, Beatrice Josse9, Douglas Kinnison7, Meiyun Lin13,23, Eva Mancini3, Michael E. Manyin12,22, Marion Marchand21, Virginie Marécal9, Martine Michou9, Luke D. Oman12, Giovanni Pitari3, David A. Plummer4, Laura E. Revell5,6, David Saint-Martin9, Robyn Schofield11, Andrea Stenke5, Kane Stone11,a, Kengo Sudo19, Taichu Y. Tanaka15, Simone Tilmes7, Yousuke Yamashita8,b, Kohei Yoshida15, and Guang Zeng1 Olaf Morgenstern et al.
  • 1National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
  • 2Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
  • 3Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Universitá dell'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
  • 4Environment and Climate Change Canada, Montréal, Canada
  • 5Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich (ETHZ), Zürich, Switzerland
  • 6Bodeker Scientific, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • 7National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 8National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan
  • 9CNRM UMR 3589, Météo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • 10Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 11School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 12National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
  • 13National Atmospheric and Ocean Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA GFDL), Princeton, New Jersey, USA
  • 14Met Office Hadley Centre (MOHC), Exeter, UK
  • 15Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan
  • 16School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  • 17Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • 18Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos – World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC), Davos, Switzerland
  • 19Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • 20National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), UK
  • 21LATMOS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Paris, France
  • 22Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland, USA
  • 23Princeton University Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
  • anow at: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  • bnow at: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Japan

Abstract. We present an overview of state-of-the-art chemistry–climate and chemistry transport models that are used within phase 1 of the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1). The CCMI aims to conduct a detailed evaluation of participating models using process-oriented diagnostics derived from observations in order to gain confidence in the models' projections of the stratospheric ozone layer, tropospheric composition, air quality, where applicable global climate change, and the interactions between them. Interpretation of these diagnostics requires detailed knowledge of the radiative, chemical, dynamical, and physical processes incorporated in the models. Also an understanding of the degree to which CCMI-1 recommendations for simulations have been followed is necessary to understand model responses to anthropogenic and natural forcing and also to explain inter-model differences. This becomes even more important given the ongoing development and the ever-growing complexity of these models. This paper also provides an overview of the available CCMI-1 simulations with the aim of informing CCMI data users.

Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.