Articles | Volume 4, issue 3
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 543–570, 2011
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 543–570, 2011

Model description paper 01 Jul 2011

Model description paper | 01 Jul 2011

The HadGEM2-ES implementation of CMIP5 centennial simulations

C. D. Jones1, J. K. Hughes1, N. Bellouin1, S. C. Hardiman1, G. S. Jones1, J. Knight1, S. Liddicoat1, F. M. O'Connor1, R. J. Andres2, C. Bell3,†, K.-O. Boo4, A. Bozzo5, N. Butchart1, P. Cadule6, K. D. Corbin7,*, M. Doutriaux-Boucher1, P. Friedlingstein8, J. Gornall1, L. Gray9, P. R. Halloran1, G. Hurtt10,16, W. J. Ingram1,11, J.-F. Lamarque12, R. M. Law7, M. Meinshausen13, S. Osprey9, E. J. Palin1, L. Parsons Chini10, T. Raddatz14, M. G. Sanderson1, A. A. Sellar1, A. Schurer5, P. Valdes15, N. Wood1, S. Woodward1, M. Yoshioka15, and M. Zerroukat1 C. D. Jones et al.
  • 1Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
  • 2Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, USA
  • 3Meteorology Dept, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK
  • 4National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, Korea
  • 5School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK
  • 6Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI, 4 Place de Jussieu, case 101, 75252 cedex 05 Paris, France
  • 7Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia
  • 8College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QF, UK
  • 9National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK
  • 10Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 21403, USA
  • 11Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK
  • 12Atmospheric Chemistry Division, UCAR, Boulder, USA
  • 13Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
  • 14Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
  • 15School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS81SS, UK
  • 16Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA
  • *now at: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
  • deceased, 20 June 2010

Abstract. The scientific understanding of the Earth's climate system, including the central question of how the climate system is likely to respond to human-induced perturbations, is comprehensively captured in GCMs and Earth System Models (ESM). Diagnosing the simulated climate response, and comparing responses across different models, is crucially dependent on transparent assumptions of how the GCM/ESM has been driven – especially because the implementation can involve subjective decisions and may differ between modelling groups performing the same experiment. This paper outlines the climate forcings and setup of the Met Office Hadley Centre ESM, HadGEM2-ES for the CMIP5 set of centennial experiments. We document the prescribed greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol precursors, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone assumptions, as well as implementation of land-use change and natural forcings for the HadGEM2-ES historical and future experiments following the Representative Concentration Pathways. In addition, we provide details of how HadGEM2-ES ensemble members were initialised from the control run and how the palaeoclimate and AMIP experiments, as well as the "emission-driven" RCP experiments were performed.