Articles | Volume 11, issue 3
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1033–1057, 2018

Special issue: Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) Experimental...

Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1033–1057, 2018
Review and perspective paper
16 Mar 2018
Review and perspective paper | 16 Mar 2018

The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis plan

Masa Kageyama1, Pascale Braconnot1, Sandy P. Harrison2, Alan M. Haywood3, Johann H. Jungclaus4, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner5, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt1, Ayako Abe-Ouchi6,7, Samuel Albani1,8, Patrick J. Bartlein9, Chris Brierley10, Michel Crucifix11, Aisling Dolan3, Laura Fernandez-Donado12, Hubertus Fischer13, Peter O. Hopcroft14,15, Ruza F. Ivanovic3, Fabrice Lambert16, Daniel J. Lunt14, Natalie M. Mahowald17, W. Richard Peltier18, Steven J. Phipps19, Didier M. Roche1,20, Gavin A. Schmidt21, Lev Tarasov22, Paul J. Valdes14, Qiong Zhang23, and Tianjun Zhou24 Masa Kageyama et al.
  • 1Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 2Centre for Past Climate Change and School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science (SAGES) University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6AH, Reading, UK
  • 3School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
  • 4Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 5National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
  • 6Atmosphere Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
  • 7Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-0001, Japan
  • 8Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
  • 9Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1251, USA
  • 10University College London, Department of Geography, WC1E 6BT, UK
  • 11Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  • 12Dpto. Física de la Tierra, Astronomía y Astrofísica II, Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
  • 13Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute & Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
  • 14School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
  • 15School of Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  • 16Catholic University of Chile, Department of Physical Geography, Santiago, Chile
  • 17Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Bradfield 1112, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
  • 18Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada
  • 19Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
  • 20Earth and Climate Cluster, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • 21NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025, USA
  • 22Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, NL, A1B 3X7, Canada
  • 23Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 24LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 9804, Beijing 100029, China

Abstract. This paper is the first of a series of four GMD papers on the PMIP4-CMIP6 experiments. Part 2 (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2017) gives details about the two PMIP4-CMIP6 interglacial experiments, Part 3 (Jungclaus et al., 2017) about the last millennium experiment, and Part 4 (Kageyama et al., 2017) about the Last Glacial Maximum experiment. The mid-Pliocene Warm Period experiment is part of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) – Phase 2, detailed in Haywood et al. (2016).

The goal of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) is to understand the response of the climate system to different climate forcings for documented climatic states very different from the present and historical climates. Through comparison with observations of the environmental impact of these climate changes, or with climate reconstructions based on physical, chemical, or biological records, PMIP also addresses the issue of how well state-of-the-art numerical models simulate climate change. Climate models are usually developed using the present and historical climates as references, but climate projections show that future climates will lie well outside these conditions. Palaeoclimates very different from these reference states therefore provide stringent tests for state-of-the-art models and a way to assess whether their sensitivity to forcings is compatible with palaeoclimatic evidence. Simulations of five different periods have been designed to address the objectives of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6): the millennium prior to the industrial epoch (CMIP6 name: past1000); the mid-Holocene, 6000 years ago (midHolocene); the Last Glacial Maximum, 21 000 years ago (lgm); the Last Interglacial, 127 000 years ago (lig127k); and the mid-Pliocene Warm Period, 3.2 million years ago (midPliocene-eoi400). These climatic periods are well documented by palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records, with climate and environmental changes relevant for the study and projection of future climate changes. This paper describes the motivation for the choice of these periods and the design of the numerical experiments and database requests, with a focus on their novel features compared to the experiments performed in previous phases of PMIP and CMIP. It also outlines the analysis plan that takes advantage of the comparisons of the results across periods and across CMIP6 in collaboration with other MIPs.

Short summary
The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) takes advantage of the existence of past climate states radically different from the recent past to test climate models used for climate projections and to better understand these climates. This paper describes the PMIP contribution to CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, 6th phase) and possible analyses based on PMIP results, as well as on other CMIP6 projects.