STEMMUS-MODFLOW v1.0.0: Integrated Understanding of Soil Water and Groundwater Flow Processes: Case Study of the Maqu Catchment, north-eastern Tibetan Plateau
Abstract. How to efficiently and physically integrate the soil water dynamics with groundwater flow processes has drawn much attention. We present a coupled soil water-groundwater model, considering the two-way feedback coupling scheme, and verified its performance using two synthetic cases (using the fully 3D variably saturated flow (VSF) model simulations as the ‘reference’) and one real catchment case (using the groundwater table depth and soil moisture profile measurements). By the cross-validation between the observations and various model simulations, the two-way coupling approach is proven physically accurate and is applicable for large-scale groundwater flow problems. Compared to the simulation by groundwater model alone (i.e., only MODFLOW), the coupling of MODFLOW with one soil column reduced the overestimation of groundwater table simulation (taking the VSF model simulations as the reference). The results were further improved as more soil columns were used to represent the heterogeneous soil water-groundwater interactions. Compared to the HYDRUS-MODFLOW, the two-way coupling approach produces a similar spatial distribution of hydraulic heads while better performs in mimicking the temporal dynamics of groundwater table depth and soil moisture profiles. We attribute the better performance to the different coupling strategies across the soil-water and groundwater interface. It is thus suggested to adopt the two-way feedback coupling scheme, together with the moving phreatic boundary and multi-scale water balance analysis, to maintain physical consistency and reduce coupling errors. The realistic implementation of the vadose zone processes (with STEMMUS), coupling approach, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity of soil water-groundwater interactions were demonstrated critical to accurately represent an integrated soil water-groundwater system. The developed STEMMUS-MODFLOW model can be further equipped with different complexities of soil physics (e.g., coupled soil water and heat transfer, freeze-thaw, airflow processes), surface hydrology (snowfall, runoff), soil and plant biogeochemical processes, towards an integrated "from bedrock to atmosphere" modeling framework.
2018–2019 dataset in Maqu, the Tibetan Plateau https://doi.org/10.17026/dans-z6t-zpn7
Multi dimensional observation data set of single watershed in Maqu County, Qinghai Tibet Plateau (2018–2019) https://doi.org/10.11888/Hydro.tpdc.271221
Model code and software
Simultaneous Transfer of Energy, Momentum and Mass in Unsaturated Soils (STEMMUS) https://github.com/yijianzeng/STEMMUS
Viewed (geographical distribution)