NHM-Chem, the Japan MeteorologicalAgency's regional meteorology – chemistry model (v1.0): model description and aerosol representations
- 1Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, 305-0052, Japan
- 2Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8577, Japan
- 3Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 816-8580, Japan
- 4Japan Meteorological Agency, Chiyoda, 100-8122, Japan
- 5Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan
- 6Graduate School of Simulation Studies, University of Hyogo, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan
- 7College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, 310-8512, Japan
- 8Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Uji, 611-0011, Japan
- 9Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, Chiyoda, 101-0054, Japan
Abstract. A regional-scale meteorology – chemistry model (NHM-Chem v1.0) has been developed. Three options for aerosol representations are currently available: the 5-category non-equilibrium (Aitken, soot-free accumulation, accumulation internally mixed with soot, dust, and sea-salt), 3-category non-equilibrium (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse), and bulk equilibrium (submicron, dust, and sea-salt) methods. These three methods are suitable for the predictions of regional climate, air quality, and operational forecasts, respectively. The total CPU times of the 5-category and 3-category methods were 91 % and 44 % greater than that of the bulk method, respectively. The bulk equilibrium method was shown to be eligible for operational forecast purposes, namely, the surface mass concentrations of air pollutants such as O3, mineral dust, and PM2.5. The 3-category method was shown to be eligible for air quality simulations, namely, mass concentrations and depositions. However, the internal mixture assumption of soot/soot-free and dust/sea-salt particles in the 3-category method resulted in significant differences in the size distribution and hygroscopicity of the particles. Even though the 3-category method was not designed to simulate aerosol-cloud-radiation interaction processes, its performance in terms of bulk properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), was acceptable. However, some specific parameters exhibited significant differences or systematic errors. The unrealistic dust/sea-salt complete mixture of the 3-category method induced significant errors in the prediction of mineral dust containing CCN. The overestimation of soot hygroscopicity by the 3-category method induced errors in BC-containing CCN, BC deposition, and absorbing AOT (AAOT). The difference in AAOT was less pronounced because the overestimation of the absorption enhancement was compensated by the overestimation of hygroscopic growth and the consequent loss due to in-cloud scavenging.
Mizuo Kajino et al.
Mizuo Kajino et al.
Mizuo Kajino et al.
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