Articles | Volume 4, issue 3
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 723–757, 2011
Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 723–757, 2011

Development and technical paper 07 Sep 2011

Development and technical paper | 07 Sep 2011

The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model climate configurations

The HadGEM2 Development Team: G. M. Martin1, N. Bellouin1, W. J. Collins1, I. D. Culverwell1, P. R. Halloran1, S. C. Hardiman1, T. J. Hinton1, C. D. Jones1, R. E. McDonald1, A. J. McLaren1, F. M. O'Connor1, M. J. Roberts1, J. M. Rodriguez1, S. Woodward1, M. J. Best1, M. E. Brooks1, A. R. Brown1, N. Butchart1, C. Dearden2, S. H. Derbyshire1, I. Dharssi3, M. Doutriaux-Boucher1, J. M. Edwards1, P. D. Falloon1, N. Gedney1, L. J. Gray4, H. T. Hewitt1, M. Hobson1, M. R. Huddleston1, J. Hughes1, S. Ineson1, W. J. Ingram4,1, P. M. James5, T. C. Johns1, C. E. Johnson1, A. Jones1, C. P. Jones1, M. M. Joshi6, A. B. Keen1, S. Liddicoat1, A. P. Lock1, A. V. Maidens1, J. C. Manners1, S. F. Milton1, J. G. L. Rae1, J. K. Ridley1, A. Sellar1, C. A. Senior1, I. J. Totterdell1, A. Verhoef7, P. L. Vidale6, and A. Wiltshire1 The HadGEM2 Development Team: G. M. Martin et al.
  • 1Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, UK
  • 2School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  • 3Centre for Australian Weather and Climate, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia
  • 4Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford, UK
  • 5Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
  • 6National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Climate Directorate, Dept Of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading, UK
  • 7Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights Reading, UK

Abstract. We describe the HadGEM2 family of climate configurations of the Met Office Unified Model, MetUM. The concept of a model "family" comprises a range of specific model configurations incorporating different levels of complexity but with a common physical framework. The HadGEM2 family of configurations includes atmosphere and ocean components, with and without a vertical extension to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System (ES) component which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry. The HadGEM2 physical model includes improvements designed to address specific systematic errors encountered in the previous climate configuration, HadGEM1, namely Northern Hemisphere continental temperature biases and tropical sea surface temperature biases and poor variability. Targeting these biases was crucial in order that the ES configuration could represent important biogeochemical climate feedbacks. Detailed descriptions and evaluations of particular HadGEM2 family members are included in a number of other publications, and the discussion here is limited to a summary of the overall performance using a set of model metrics which compare the way in which the various configurations simulate present-day climate and its variability.