GEOCLIM reloaded (v 1.0): a new coupled earth system model for past climate change
Abstract. We present a new version of the coupled Earth system model GEOCLIM. The new release, GEOCLIM reloaded (v 1.0), links the existing atmosphere and weathering modules to a novel, temporally and spatially resolved model of the global ocean circulation, which provides a physical framework for a mechanistic description of the marine biogeochemical dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen. The ocean model is also coupled to a fully formulated, vertically resolved diagenetic model. GEOCLIM reloaded is thus a unique tool to investigate the short- and long-term feedbacks between climatic conditions, continental inputs, ocean biogeochemical dynamics and diagenesis. A complete and detailed description of the resulting Earth system model and its new features is first provided. The performance of GEOCLIM reloaded is then evaluated by comparing steady-state simulation under present-day conditions with a comprehensive set of oceanic data and existing global estimates of bio-element cycling in the pelagic and benthic compartments.