Optimizing the parameterization of deep mixing and internal seiches in one-dimensional hydrodynamic models: a case study with Simstrat v1.3
- 1Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Surface Waters, Research and Management, Seestrasse 79, 6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland
- 2École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Physics of Aquatic Systems Laboratory, Margaretha Kamprad Chair, EPFL-ENAC-IIE-APHYS, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Abstract. This paper presents an improvement of a one-dimensional lake hydrodynamic model (Simstrat) to characterize the vertical thermal structure of deep lakes. Using physically based arguments, we refine the transfer of wind energy to basin-scale internal waves (BSIWs). We consider the properties of the basin, the characteristics of the wind time series and the stability of the water column to filter and thereby optimize the magnitude of wind energy transferred to BSIWs. We show that this filtering procedure can significantly improve the accuracy of modelled temperatures, especially in the deep water of lakes such as Lake Geneva, for which the root mean square error between observed and simulated temperatures was reduced by up to 40 %. The modification, tested on four different lakes, increases model accuracy and contributes to a significantly better reproduction of seasonal deep convective mixing, a fundamental parameter for biogeochemical processes such as oxygen depletion. It also improves modelling over long time series for the purpose of climate change studies.