Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2024-87
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2024-87
Submitted as: model experiment description paper
 | 
14 May 2024
Submitted as: model experiment description paper |  | 14 May 2024
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Design, evaluation and future projections of the NARCliM2.0 CORDEX-CMIP6 Australasia regional climate ensemble

Giovanni Di Virgilio, Jason Evans, Fei Ji, Eugene Tam, Jatin Kala, Julia Andrys, Christopher Thomas, Dipayan Choudhury, Carlos Rocha, Stephen White, Yue Li, Moutassem El Rafei, Rishav Goyal, Matthew Riley, and Jyothi Lingala

Abstract. NARCliM2.0 comprises two Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate models (RCMs) downscaling five CMIP6 global climate models contributing to the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment over Australasia at 20 km resolution, and south-east Australia at 4 km convection-permitting resolution. We first describe NARCliM2.0’s design, including selecting two, definitive RCMs via testing seventy-eight RCMs using different parameterisations for planetary boundary layer, microphysics, cumulus, radiation, and land surface model (LSM). We then assess NARCliM2.0's skill in simulating the historical climate versus CMIP3-forced NARCliM1.0 and CMIP5-forced NARCliM1.5 RCMs and compare differences in future climate projections. RCMs using the new Noah-MP LSM in WRF with default settings confer substantial improvements in simulating temperature variables versus RCMs using Noah-Unified. Noah-MP confers smaller improvements in simulating precipitation, except for large improvements over Australia’s southeast coast. Activating Noah-MP’s dynamic vegetation cover and/or runoff options primarily improve simulation of minimum temperature. NARCliM2.0 confers large reductions in maximum temperature bias versus NARCliM1.0 and 1.5 (1.x), with small absolute biases of ~0.5 K over many regions versus over ~2 K for NARCliM1.x. NARCliM2.0 reduces wet biases versus NARCliM1.x by as much as 50 %, but retains dry biases over Australia’s north. NARCliM2.0 is biased warmer for minimum temperature versus NARCliM1.5 which is partly inherited from stronger warm biases in CMIP6 versus CMIP5 GCMs. Under shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP)3-7.0, NARCliM2.0 projects ~3 K warming by 2060–79 over inland regions versus ~2.5 K over coastal regions. NARCliM2.0-SSP3-7.0 projects dry futures over most of Australia, except for wet futures over Australia’s north and parts of western Australia which are largest in summer. NARCliM2.0-SSP1-2.6 projects dry changes over Australia with only few exceptions. NARCliM2.0 is a valuable resource for assessing climate change impacts on societies and natural systems and informing resilience planning by reducing model biases versus earlier NARCliM generations and providing more up-to-date future climate projections utilising CMIP6.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Giovanni Di Virgilio, Jason Evans, Fei Ji, Eugene Tam, Jatin Kala, Julia Andrys, Christopher Thomas, Dipayan Choudhury, Carlos Rocha, Stephen White, Yue Li, Moutassem El Rafei, Rishav Goyal, Matthew Riley, and Jyothi Lingala

Status: open (until 09 Jul 2024)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • CC1: 'Comment on gmd-2024-87', Jatin Kala, 15 May 2024 reply
Giovanni Di Virgilio, Jason Evans, Fei Ji, Eugene Tam, Jatin Kala, Julia Andrys, Christopher Thomas, Dipayan Choudhury, Carlos Rocha, Stephen White, Yue Li, Moutassem El Rafei, Rishav Goyal, Matthew Riley, and Jyothi Lingala
Giovanni Di Virgilio, Jason Evans, Fei Ji, Eugene Tam, Jatin Kala, Julia Andrys, Christopher Thomas, Dipayan Choudhury, Carlos Rocha, Stephen White, Yue Li, Moutassem El Rafei, Rishav Goyal, Matthew Riley, and Jyothi Lingala

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Short summary
We introduce new climate models that simulate Australia’s future climate at regional scales, including at an unprecedented resolution of 4 km for 1950–2100. We describe the model design process used to create these new climate models. We show how the new models perform relative to previous-generation models, and compare their climate projections. This work is of national and international relevance as it can help guide climate model design and the use and interpretation of climate projections.