Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 5.240
IF 5-year value: 5.768
IF 5-year
CiteScore value: 8.9
SNIP value: 1.713
IPP value: 5.53
SJR value: 3.18
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 71
Scimago H
h5-index value: 51
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: model evaluation paper 12 Oct 2020

Submitted as: model evaluation paper | 12 Oct 2020

Review status
This preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Comparison of three aerosol representations of NHM-Chem (v1.0) for the simulations of air quality and climate-relevant variables

Mizuo Kajino1,2, Makoto Deushi1, Tsuyoshi Thomas Sekiyama1, Naga Oshima1, Keiya Yumimoto3,1, Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka1, Joseph Ching1, Akihiro Hashimoto1, Tetsuya Yamamoto1, Masaaki Ikegami4, Akane Kamada4,1, Makoto Miyashita4, Yayoi Inomata5,1, Shin-ichiro Shima6, Pradeep Khatri7, Atsushi Shimizu8, Hitoshi Irie9, Kouji Adachi1, Yuji Zaizen1, Yasuhito Igarashi10,11, Hiromasa Ueda12, Takashi Maki1, and Masao Mikami13,1 Mizuo Kajino et al.
  • 1Meteorological Research Institute, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, 305-0052, Japan
  • 2Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8572, Japan
  • 3Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 816-8580, Japan
  • 4Japan Meteorological Agency, Chiyoda, 100-8122, Japan
  • 5Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan
  • 6Graduate School of Simulation Studies, University of Hyogo, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan
  • 7Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan
  • 8National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Japan
  • 9Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522, Japan
  • 10Institute for Integrated Radiation and Nuclear Science, Kyoto University, Kumatori, 590-0494, Japan
  • 11College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, 310-8512, Japan
  • 12Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Uji, 611-0011, Japan
  • 13Japan Meteorological Business Support Center, Chiyoda, 101-0054, Japan

Abstract. This study provides comparisons of aerosol representation methods incorporated into a regional-scale nonhydrostatic meteorology-chemistry model (NHM-Chem). Three options for aerosol representations are currently available: the 5-category nonequilibrium (Aitken, soot-free accumulation, soot-containing accumulation, dust, and sea salt), 3-category nonequilibrium (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse), and bulk equilibrium (submicron, dust, and sea salt) methods. The 3-category method is widely used in three-dimensional air quality models. The 5-category method, the standard method of NHM-Chem, is an extensional development of the 3-category method and provides improved predictions of regional climate by implementing separate treatments of light absorber and ice nuclei, namely, soot and dust, from the accumulation and coarse mode categories. The bulk equilibrium method was also developed for operational air quality forecasting with simple aerosol dynamics representations. The total CPU times of the 5-category and 3-category methods were 91 % and 44 % greater than that of the bulk method, respectively. The bulk equilibrium method was shown to be eligible for operational forecast purposes, namely, the surface mass concentrations of air pollutants such as O3, mineral dust, and PM2.5. The simulated surface concentrations and depositions of bulk chemical species of the 3-category method were not significantly different from those of the 5-category method. However, the internal mixture assumption of soot/soot-free and dust/sea salt particles in the 3-category method resulted in significant differences in the size distribution and hygroscopicity of the particles. The unrealistic dust/sea salt complete mixture of the 3-category method induced significant errors in the prediction of the mineral dust-containing CCN, which alters heterogeneous ice nucleation in cold rain processes. The overestimation of soot hygroscopicity by the 3-category method induced errors in the BC-containing CCN, BC deposition, and light-absorbing AOT (AAOT). Nevertheless, the difference in AAOT was less pronounced with the 3-category method because the overestimation of the absorption enhancement was compensated by the overestimation of hygroscopic growth and the consequent loss due to in-cloud scavenging. In terms of total properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), the results of the 3-category method were acceptable. To evaluate the significance of separate soot and dust treatments in the 5-category method in terms of aerosol-cloud-radiation interaction processes, online simulation with a chemistry-to-meteorology feedback process is required.

Mizuo Kajino et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: open (until 07 Dec 2020)
Status: open (until 07 Dec 2020)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Mizuo Kajino et al.

Mizuo Kajino et al.


Total article views: 142 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
121 18 3 142 9 1 2
  • HTML: 121
  • PDF: 18
  • XML: 3
  • Total: 142
  • Supplement: 9
  • BibTeX: 1
  • EndNote: 2
Views and downloads (calculated since 12 Oct 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 12 Oct 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 117 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 116 with geography defined and 1 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1



No saved metrics found.


No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 23 Oct 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
This study compares performances of aerosol representation methods of a regional meteorology-chemistry model. The 3-category (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse) method is widely used in air quality models. The 5-category method (Aitken, soot-free accumulation, soot-containing accumulation, dust, and sea-salt) is 30 % slower but suitable for the aerosol-cloud-radiation interaction studies. The bulk method was 30 % faster and suitable for the operational forecast such as O3, PM2.5 and mineral dust.
This study compares performances of aerosol representation methods of a regional...