Submitted as: development and technical paper
21 Nov 2023
Submitted as: development and technical paper |  | 21 Nov 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

A 3D-Var Assimilation Scheme for Vertical Velocity with the CMA-MESO v5.0

Hong Li, Yi Yang, Jian Sun, Yuan Jiang, Ruhui Gan, and Qian Xie

Abstract. Certain vertical motions associated with meso-microscale systems are favorable for convection development and maintenance; correct initialization of updraft motions is thus significant in convective precipitation forecasts. A three-dimensional variational-based vertical velocity (w) assimilation scheme has been developed within the high-resolution (3 km) CMA-MESO (the Mesoscale Weather Numerical Forecast System of China Meteorological Administration) model. This scheme utilizes the adiabatic Richardson equation as the observation operator for w, enabling the update of horizontal winds and mass fields of the model’s background. The tangent linear and adjoint operators are subsequently developed and undergo an accuracy check. A single-point w observation assimilation experiment reveals that the observational information is effectively spread both horizontally and vertically. Specifically, the assimilation of w contributes to the generation of horizontal wind convergence at lower model levels and divergence at higher model levels, thereby adjusting the locations of convection occurrence. The impact of assimilating w on the convective precipitation forecast is then examined using a heavy rainfall event, and the results suggest that better 6-h precipitation forecasts are obtained by assimilating w. A batch continuous run is also conducted, and the result indicates that the scheme exhibits a high degree of robustness, leading to improved equitable threat score (frequency skill score) for the first 1 h (3 h) precipitation forecasts compared to the experiment without w assimilated.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Hong Li, Yi Yang, Jian Sun, Yuan Jiang, Ruhui Gan, and Qian Xie

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2023-180', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Dec 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2023-180', Anonymous Referee #2, 30 Jan 2024
  • AC1: 'AC: Comment on gmd-2023-180', Hong Li, 08 Mar 2024
Hong Li, Yi Yang, Jian Sun, Yuan Jiang, Ruhui Gan, and Qian Xie
Hong Li, Yi Yang, Jian Sun, Yuan Jiang, Ruhui Gan, and Qian Xie


Total article views: 316 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
233 56 27 316 22 19
  • HTML: 233
  • PDF: 56
  • XML: 27
  • Total: 316
  • BibTeX: 22
  • EndNote: 19
Views and downloads (calculated since 21 Nov 2023)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 21 Nov 2023)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 318 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 318 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 24 May 2024
Short summary
Vertical atmospheric motions play a vital role in convective-scale precipitation forecasts by connecting atmospheric dynamics with cloud development. A three-dimensional variational vertical velocity assimilation scheme is developed within the high-resolution CMA-MESO model, utilizing the adiabatic Richardson equation as the observation operator. A study of a heavy rainfall event and continuous runs demonstrates improved forecasts, confirming the scheme's effectiveness.