Submitted as: model evaluation paper
19 Oct 2023
Submitted as: model evaluation paper |  | 19 Oct 2023
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Development and evaluation of the interactive Model for Air Pollution and Land Ecosystems (iMAPLE) version 1.0

Xu Yue, Hao Zhou, Chenguang Tian, Yimian Ma, Yihan Hu, Cheng Gong, Hui Zheng, and Hong Liao

Abstract. Land ecosystems are important sources and sinks of atmospheric components. In turn, air pollutants affect the exchange rates of carbon and water fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, these biogeochemical processes are usually not well presented in the Earth system models, limiting the explorations of interactions between land ecosystems and air pollutants from the regional to global scales. Here, we develop and validate the interactive Model for Air Pollution and Land Ecosystems (iMAPLE) by upgrading the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere model with process-based water cycles, fire emissions, wetland methane (CH4) emissions, and the trait-based ozone (O3) damages. Within the iMAPLE, soil moisture and temperature are dynamically calculated based on the water and energy balance in soil layers. Fire emissions are dependent on dryness, lightning, population, and fuel load. Wetland CH4 is produced but consumed through oxidation, ebullition, diffusion, and plant-mediated transport. The trait-based scheme unifies O3 sensitivity of different plant functional types (PFTs) with the leaf mass per area. Validations show correlation coefficients (R) of 0.59–0.86 for gross primary productivity (GPP) and 0.57–0.84 for evapotranspiration (ET) across the six PFTs at 201 flux tower sites, and yield an average R of 0.68 for CH4 emissions at 44 sites. Simulated soil moisture and temperature match reanalysis data with the high R above 0.86 and low normalized mean biases (NMB) within 7 %, leading to reasonable simulations of global GPP (R=0.92, NMB=1.3 %) and ET (R=0.93, NMB=-10.4 %) against satellite-based observations for 2001–2013. The model predicts an annual global area burned of 507.1 Mha, close to the observations of 475.4 Mha with a spatial R of 0.66 for 1997–2016. The wetland CH4 emissions are estimated to be 153.45 Tg [CH4] yr-1 during 2000–2014, close to the multi-model mean of 148 Tg [CH4] yr-1. The model also shows reasonable responses of GPP and ET to the changes in diffuse radiation, and yields a mean O3 damage of 2.9 % to global GPP. The iMAPLE provides an advanced tool for studying the interactions between land ecosystem and air pollutants.

Xu Yue et al.

Status: open (until 20 Dec 2023)

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Xu Yue et al.


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Short summary
We develop the interactive Model for Air Pollution and Land Ecosystems (iMAPLE). The model considers the full coupling between carbon and water cycles, dynamic fire emissions, wetland methane emissions, biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions, and the trait-based ozone vegetation damage. Evaluations show that the iMAPLE is a useful tool for the study of the interactions among climate, chemistry, and ecosystems.