Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2023-132
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2023-132
Submitted as: model evaluation paper
 | 
29 Aug 2023
Submitted as: model evaluation paper |  | 29 Aug 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal GMD and is expected to appear here in due course.

Sensitivity of the WRF-Chem v4.4 ozone, formaldehyde, and precursor simulations to multiple bottom-up emission inventories over East Asia during the KORUS-AQ 2016 field campaign

Kyoung-Min Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Seunghwan Seo, Donald R. Blake, Seogju Cho, James H. Crawford, Louisa Emmons, Alan Fried, Jay R. Herman, Jinkyu Hong, Jinsang Jung, Gabriele Pfister, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Jung-Hun Woo, and Qiang Zhang

Abstract. In this study, the WRF-Chem v4.4 model was utilized to evaluate three bottom-up emission inventories (EDGAR-HTAP v2, v3, and KORUS v5) using surface and aircraft data in East Asia during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign period in 2016. All emission inventories were found to reproduce the diurnal variations of O3 and NO2 as compared to the surface monitor data. However, the spatial distributions of the daily maximum 8-hour average (MDA8) O3 in the model do not completely align with the observations. The model MDA8 O3 had a negative (positive) bias north (south) of 30° N over China. All simulations underestimated the observed CO by 50–60 % over China and South Korea. In the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), EDGAR-HTAP v2, v3, and KORUS v5 simulated the vertical shapes and diurnal patterns of O3 and other precursors effectively, but the model underestimated the observed O3, CO and HCHO concentrations. Notably, the model aromatic VOCs were significantly underestimated with the three bottom-up emission inventories, although the KORUS v5 shows improvements. The model isoprene estimations had a positive bias relative to the observations, suggesting that the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) version 2.04 overestimated isoprene emissions. Additional model simulations were conducted by doubling CO and VOC emissions over China and South Korea to investigate the causes of the model O3 biases and the effects of the long-range transport on the O3 over South Korea. The doubled CO and VOC emission simulations improved the model O3 simulations for the local emission dominant case, but led to the model O3 overestimations for the transport dominant case, which emphasizes the need for accurate representations of the local VOC emissions over South Korea.

Kyoung-Min Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Seunghwan Seo, Donald R. Blake, Seogju Cho, James H. Crawford, Louisa Emmons, Alan Fried, Jay R. Herman, Jinkyu Hong, Jinsang Jung, Gabriele Pfister, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Jung-Hun Woo, and Qiang Zhang

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2023-132', Anonymous Referee #1, 27 Sep 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Kyoung-Min Kim, 01 Dec 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2023-132', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 Oct 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Kyoung-Min Kim, 01 Dec 2023

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2023-132', Anonymous Referee #1, 27 Sep 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Kyoung-Min Kim, 01 Dec 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2023-132', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 Oct 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Kyoung-Min Kim, 01 Dec 2023
Kyoung-Min Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Seunghwan Seo, Donald R. Blake, Seogju Cho, James H. Crawford, Louisa Emmons, Alan Fried, Jay R. Herman, Jinkyu Hong, Jinsang Jung, Gabriele Pfister, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Jung-Hun Woo, and Qiang Zhang
Kyoung-Min Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Seunghwan Seo, Donald R. Blake, Seogju Cho, James H. Crawford, Louisa Emmons, Alan Fried, Jay R. Herman, Jinkyu Hong, Jinsang Jung, Gabriele Pfister, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Jung-Hun Woo, and Qiang Zhang

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Short summary
Three emission inventories were evaluated for East Asia using data acquired during a field campaign in 2016. The inventories successfully reproduced the daily variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. However, the spatial distributions of model ozone did not fully agree with the observations. Additionally, all simulations underestimated carbon monoxide and volatile organic compound (VOC) levels. Increasing VOC emissions over South Korea resulted in improved ozone simulations.