Submitted as: review and perspective paper
27 Jul 2023
Submitted as: review and perspective paper |  | 27 Jul 2023
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Towards the definition of a solar forcing dataset for CMIP7

Bernd Funke, Thierry Dudok de Wit, Ilaria Ermolli, Margit Haberreiter, Doug Kinnison, Daniel Marsh, Hilde Nesse, Annika Seppälä, Miriam Sinnhuber, and Ilya Usoskin

Abstract. The solar forcing prepared for the 6th round of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has been used extensively in climate model experiments and has been tested in various intercomparison studies. Recently, an International Space Science Institute (ISSI) Working Group has been established to revisit the solar forcing recommendations, based on the lessons learned from CMIP6, and to assess new data-sets that have become available, in order to define a roadmap for building a revised and extended historical solar forcing data-set for the upcoming 7th round of CMIP. This paper identifies needs for improvements and outlines a strategy to address them in the planned new solar forcing dataset. Proposed major changes include the adoption of the new TSIS-1 solar reference spectrum for solar spectral irradiance and an improved description of top of the atmosphere energetic electron fluxes, as well as their reconstruction back to 1850 by means of geomagnetic proxy data. In addition, there is an urgent need to consider the proposed updates in the ozone forcing data-set in order to ensure a self-consistent solar forcing in coupled models without interactive chemistry. Regarding future solar forcing, we propose consideration of stochastic ensemble forcing scenarios, ideally in concert with other natural forcings, in order to allow for realistic projections of natural forcing uncertainties.

Bernd Funke et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Aug 2023
  • CC1: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Anoruo chukwuma, 05 Aug 2023
  • CC2: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Gavin A. Schmidt, 07 Aug 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Anonymous Referee #2, 27 Aug 2023
  • CC3: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Valentina Zharkova, 28 Aug 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Tom Woods, 29 Aug 2023
  • CC4: 'Comment on gmd-2023-100', Gareth S. Jones, 08 Sep 2023

Bernd Funke et al.

Bernd Funke et al.


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Short summary
We outline a roadmap for preparation of a solar forcing dataset for the upcoming 7th round of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), considering the latest scientific advances made in the reconstruction of solar forcing and in the understanding of climate response, while also addressing the issues that were raised during CMIP6.