Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2022-93
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2022-93
Submitted as: model description paper
07 Jun 2022
Submitted as: model description paper | 07 Jun 2022

URANOS v1.0 – the Ultra Rapid Adaptable Neutron-Only Simulation for Environmental Research

Markus Köhli1,2, Martin Schrön3, Steffen Zacharias3, and Ulrich Schmidt1 Markus Köhli et al.
  • 1Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 2Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
  • 3Dep. Monitoring and Exploration Technologies, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract. The understanding of neutron transport by Monte-Carlo simulations led to major advancements towards precise interpretation of measurements. URANOS (Ultra Rapid Neutron-Only Simulation) is a free software package, which has been developed in the last years in a cooperation of Particle Physics and Environmental Sciences, specifically for the purposes of cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS). Its versatile user interface and input/output scheme tailored for CRNS applications offers hydrologists a straightforward access to model individual scenarios and to directly perform advanced neutron transport calculations. The geometry can be modeled layerwise, whereas in each layer a voxel geometry is extruded using a two-dimensional map from pixel images representing predefined materials and allowing to construct objects on the basis of pixel graphics without a 3D editor. It furthermore features predefined cosmic-ray neutron spectra and detector configurations and allows also a replication of important site characteristics of study areas – from a small pond to the catchment scale. The simulation thereby gives precise answers to questions like: From which location do neutrons originate? How do they propagate to the sensor? What is the neutron response to certain environmental changes? In recent years, URANOS has been successfully employed by a number of studies, for example, to calculate the cosmic-ray neutron footprint, signals in complex geometries like mobile applications on roads, urban environments and snow patterns.

Journal article(s) based on this preprint

Markus Köhli et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Aug 2022
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC1', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93', Anonymous Referee #2, 16 Sep 2022
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC2', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022
  • AC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022
  • AC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93 (Reviewer No.3 Response)', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (01 Nov 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (08 Nov 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
RR by Anonymous Referee #1 (08 Nov 2022)
RR by Anonymous Referee #2 (09 Nov 2022)
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (19 Nov 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (27 Nov 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (10 Dec 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (10 Dec 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (15 Dec 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (16 Dec 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Publish as is (19 Dec 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Aug 2022
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC1', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93', Anonymous Referee #2, 16 Sep 2022
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC2', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022
  • AC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022
  • AC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-93 (Reviewer No.3 Response)', Markus Köhli, 28 Oct 2022

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (01 Nov 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (08 Nov 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
RR by Anonymous Referee #1 (08 Nov 2022)
RR by Anonymous Referee #2 (09 Nov 2022)
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (19 Nov 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (27 Nov 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (10 Dec 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (10 Dec 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Publish subject to minor revisions (review by editor) (15 Dec 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz
AR by Markus Köhli on behalf of the Authors (16 Dec 2022)  Author's response    Author's tracked changes    Manuscript
ED: Publish as is (19 Dec 2022) by Wolfgang Kurtz

Journal article(s) based on this preprint

Markus Köhli et al.

Markus Köhli et al.

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Short summary
In the last decades, Monte Carlo codes were often consulted to study neutrons near the surface. As an alternative for the growing community of CRNS, we developed URANOS. The main model features are: tracking of particle histories from creation to detection, detector representations as layers or geometric shapes, a voxel-based geometry model and material setup based on color codes in ASCII matrices or bitmap images. The entire software is developed in C++ and features a graphical user interface.