Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2022-49
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2022-49
Submitted as: model experiment description paper
25 Feb 2022
Submitted as: model experiment description paper | 25 Feb 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal GMD and is expected to appear here in due course.

Transient climate simulations of the Holocene (version 1) – experimental design and boundary conditions

Zhiping Tian1, Dabang Jiang1,2, Ran Zhang1, and Baohuang Su3 Zhiping Tian et al.
  • 1Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
  • 2Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China
  • 3State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China

Abstract. The Holocene, started approximately 11.5 thousand years before present (ka), is the latest interglacial period with several rapid climate changes from decades to centuries time scales superimposed on the millennium scale mean climate trend. Climate models provide useful tools to investigate the underlying dynamic mechanisms for the climate change during this well-studied time period. Thanks to the improvements of the climate model and computational power, transient simulation of the Holocene offers an opportunity to investigate the climate evolution in response to time-varying external forcings and feedbacks. Here, we present the design of a new set of transient experiments for the whole Holocene from 11.5 ka to the preindustrial period (1850 CE) (HT-11.5ka) to investigate both combined and separated effects of the main external forcing of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and ice sheets on the climate evolution over the Holocene. The HT-11.5ka simulations are performed with a relatively high-resolution version of the comprehensive Earth system model CESM1.2.1 without acceleration, both fully- and singly-forced by time-varying boundary conditions of orbital configurations, atmospheric GHGs, and ice sheets. Preliminary simulation results show a slight decrease of the global annual mean surface air temperature from 11.5 ka to 7.5 ka due to both decreases in orbital insolation and GHG concentrations, with an abrupt cooling at approximate 7.5 ka, which is followed by a continuous warming until the preindustrial period mainly due to increased GHG concentrations. The simulated cooling magnitude at 6 ka lies within the range of the 14 PMIP4 model results and is close to their median result for the mid-Holocene simulations. Further analyses on the HT-11.5ka transient simulation results will be covered by follow-up studies.

Zhiping Tian et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-49', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Apr 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Zhiping Tian, 05 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-49', Anonymous Referee #2, 01 Apr 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Zhiping Tian, 05 May 2022

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-49', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Apr 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Zhiping Tian, 05 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-49', Anonymous Referee #2, 01 Apr 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Zhiping Tian, 05 May 2022

Zhiping Tian et al.

Zhiping Tian et al.

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Short summary
This manuscript presents the experimental design for a new set of transient experiments for the Holocene from 11.5 ka to the preindustrial period (1850 CE) with a relatively high-resolution Earth system model. Model boundary conditions include time-varying full and single forcing of orbital parameters, greenhouse gases, and ice sheets. The simulations will help to study the mean climate trend and abrupt climate changes through the Holocene in response to both full and single external forcings.