Submitted as: methods for assessment of models
02 Jan 2023
Submitted as: methods for assessment of models |  | 02 Jan 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

The three-dimensional structure of fronts in mid-latitude weather systems as represented by numerical weather prediction models

Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, and Marc Rautenhaus

Abstract. Atmospheric fronts are a widely used conceptual model in meteorology, most encountered as two-dimensional (2-D) front lines on surface analysis charts. The three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical structure of fronts has been studied in the literature by means of “standard” 2-D maps and cross-sections and is commonly sketched in 3-D illustrations of idealized weather systems in atmospheric science textbooks. However, only recently the feasibility of objective detection and visual analysis of 3-D frontal structures and their dynamics within numerical weather prediction (NWP) data has been proposed, and such approaches are not yet widely known in the atmospheric science community. In this article, we investigate the benefit of objective 3-D front detection for case studies of extratropical cyclones and for comparison of frontal structures between different NWP models. We build on a recent gradient-based detection approach, combined with modern 3-D interactive visual analysis techniques, and adapt it to handle data from state-of-the-art NWP models including those run at convection-permitting kilometer-scale resolution. The parameters of the detection method (including data smoothing and threshold parameters) are evaluated to yield physically meaningful structures. We illustrate the benefit of the method by presenting two case studies of frontal dynamics within mid-latitude cyclones. Examples include joint interactive visual analysis of 3-D fronts and warm conveyor belt (WCB) trajectories, and identification of the 3-D frontal structures characterising the different stages of a Shapiro-Keyser cyclogenesis event. The 3-D frontal structures show agreement with 2-D fronts from surface analysis charts and augment the surface charts by providing additional pertinent information in the vertical dimension. A second application illustrates the relation between convection and 3-D cold front structure by comparing data from simulations with parameterised and explicit convection. Finally, we consider “secondary fronts” that commonly appear in UK Met Office surface analysis charts. Examination of a case study shows that for this event the secondary front is not a temperature-dominated but a humidity-dominated feature. We argue that the presented approach has great potential to be beneficial for more complex studies of atmospheric dynamics and for operational weather forecasting.

Andreas A. Beckert et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • CEC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-278', Juan Antonio Añel, 10 Mar 2023
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2022-278', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Mar 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2022-278', Anonymous Referee #2, 03 Apr 2023
  • AC1: 'Response to the two anonymous referees, the editors, and the MS record notification.', Andreas Beckert, 08 May 2023

Andreas A. Beckert et al.

Model code and software

Met.3D - Code Repository Fronts Marc Rautenhaus, Andreas A. Beckert et al.

Video supplement

Interactive front analysis of storm Friederike using the open-source meteorological 3-D visualization framework "Met. 3D" Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, Marc Rautenhaus

Comparison of objectively detected 3-D fronts in wet-bulb potential temperature and potential temperature of Friederike on 18 January 2018, 12:00 UTC Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, Marc Rautenhaus

Development of 3-D frontal structures, jet stream and WCB trajectories of Vladiana Andreas A. Beckert, Lea Eisenstein, Annika Oertel, Tim Hewson, George C. Craig, Marc Rautenhaus

Andreas A. Beckert et al.


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Short summary
This study revises and extends a previously presented three-dimensional (3-D) objective front detection method and demonstrates its benefits to analyse weather dynamics in numerical simulation data. Based on two case studies of extratropical cyclones, we illustrate the benefits of interactive front detection in joint analysis of fronts and warm conveyor belt trajectories, and the identification of characteristic frontal structures of Shapiro-Keyser cyclones.