Submitted as: model description paper 06 Apr 2021

Submitted as: model description paper | 06 Apr 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

REMIND2.1: Transformation and innovation dynamics of the energy-economic system within climate and sustainability limits

Lavinia Baumstark, Nico Bauer, Falk Benke, Christoph Bertram, Stephen Bi, Chen Chris Gong, Jan Philipp Dietrich, Alois Dirnaichner, Anastasis Giannousakis, Jérôme Hilaire, David Klein, Johannes Koch, Marian Leimbach, Antoine Levesque, Silvia Madeddu, Aman Malik, Anne Merfort, Leon Merfort, Adrian Odenweller, Michaja Pehl, Robert C. Pietzcker, Franziska Piontek, Sebastian Rauner, Renato Rodrigues, Marianna Rottoli, Felix Schreyer, Anselm Schultes, Bjoern Soergel, Dominika Soergel, Jessica Strefler, Falko Ueckerdt, Elmar Kriegler, and Gunnar Luderer Lavinia Baumstark et al.
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany

Abstract. This paper presents the new and now open-source version 2.1 of the REgional Model of INvestments and Development (REMIND). REMIND, as an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM), provides an integrated view on the global energy-economy-emissions system and explores self-consistent transformation pathways. It describes a broad range of possible futures and their relation to technical and socio-economic developments as well as policy choices. REMIND is a multi-regional model incorporating the economy and a detailed representation of the energy sector implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). It uses non-linear optimization to derive welfare-optimal regional transformation pathways of the energy-economic system subject to climate and sustainability constraints for the time horizon 2005 to 2100. The resulting solution corresponds to the decentral market outcome under the assumptions of perfect foresight of agents and internalization of external effects. REMIND enables analyses of technology options and policy approaches for climate change mitigation with particular strength in representing the scale-up of new technologies, including renewables and their integration in power markets. The REMIND code is organized into modules that gather code relevant for specific topics. Interaction between different modules is made explicit via clearly defined sets of input/output variables. Each module can be represented by different realizations enabling flexible configuration and extension. The spatial resolution of REMIND is flexible and depends on the resolution of the input data. The framework can thus be used for a variety of applications in a customized form balancing requirements for detail and overall run-time and complexity.

Lavinia Baumstark et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-85', Anonymous Referee #1, 05 May 2021
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC1', Lavinia Baumstark, 09 Jun 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2021-85', Anonymous Referee #2, 07 May 2021
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC2', Lavinia Baumstark, 09 Jun 2021
  • CEC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-85', Juan Antonio Añel, 17 May 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on CEC1', Lavinia Baumstark, 17 May 2021
      • CEC2: 'Reply on AC1', Juan Antonio Añel, 17 May 2021
        • AC2: 'Reply on CEC2', Lavinia Baumstark, 18 May 2021
  • EC1: 'Topical Editor comment on gmd-2021-85', Daniel Huppmann, 07 Jun 2021
    • AC5: 'Reply on EC1', Lavinia Baumstark, 09 Jun 2021
      • EC2: 'Reply on AC5', Daniel Huppmann, 13 Jul 2021

Lavinia Baumstark et al.

Lavinia Baumstark et al.


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Short summary
This paper presents the new and open-source version 2.1 of the REgional Model of INvestments and Development (REMIND) with the aim of improving code documentation and transparency. REMIND is an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) of the energy-economic system. By answering questions like “Can the world keep global warming below 2 degrees C, under which socio-economic conditions and applying which technological options?" it is the goal of REMIND to explore self-consistent transformation pathways.