Submitted as: development and technical paper 07 Apr 2021

Submitted as: development and technical paper | 07 Apr 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Chemistry-climate model SOCOL-AERv2-BEv1 with the cosmogenic Beryllium-7 isotope cycle

Kseniia Golubenko1, Eugene Rozanov2,3,4, Gennady Kovaltsov5, Ari-Pekka Leppänen6, Timofei Sukhodolov2,3,4, and Ilya Usoskin1,7 Kseniia Golubenko et al.
  • 1Space climate research unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90570, Finland
  • 2Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, Davos Dorf, 7260, Switzerland
  • 3Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland
  • 4Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
  • 5Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia
  • 6Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority – STUK, Rovaniemi, 96400, Finland
  • 7Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Sodankylä, Oulu, 99600, Finland

Abstract. Short-living cosmogenic isotope 7Be, produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, is often used as a probe for atmospheric dynamics. Previously, modelling of the beryllium atmospheric transport was performed using simplified box-models or air back-tracing codes. While the ability of full atmospheric dynamics models to model beryllium transport was demonstrated earlier, no such ready-to-use model is currently available. Here we present the chemistry-climate model SOCOL-AERv2-BEv1 to trace isotopes of beryllium in the atmosphere. The SOCOL (SOlar Climate Ozone Links) model has been improved by including modules for the production, deposition, and transport of beryllium. Production was modelled considering both galactic and solar cosmic rays, by applying the CRAC (Cosmic-Ray induced Atmospheric Cascade) model. Radioactive decay of 7Be was explicitly taken into account. Beryllium transport was modelled without additional gravitational settling due to the small size of the background aerosol particles. An interactive deposition scheme was applied including both wet and dry depositions. The modelling was performed, using a full nudging to the meteorological fields, for the period of 2003–2008 with a spin-up period of 1996–2002. The modelled concentrations of 7Be in near-ground air were compared with the measured, at a weekly cadence, ones in four nearly antipodal high-latitude locations, two in Northern (Finland and Canada) and two in Southern (Chile and Kerguelen Island) hemispheres. The model results agree with the measurements in the absolute level within error bars, implying that the production, decay and lateral deposition are correctly reproduced by the model. The model also correctly reproduces the temporal variability of 7Be concentrations on the annual and sub-annual scales, including a perfect reproduction of the annual cycle, dominating data in the Northern hemisphere. We also modelled the production and transport of 7Be for a major solar energetic-particle event of 20-Jan-2005. Concluding, a new full 3D time-dependent model, based on the SOCOL-AERv2, of beryllium atmospheric production, transport and deposition has been developed. Comparison with the real data of 7Be concentration in the near-ground air fully validates the model and its high accuracy.

Kseniia Golubenko et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-56', Anonymous Referee #1, 10 Apr 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Kseniia Golubenko, 01 Jul 2021
  • CC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-56, four locations are a bit sparse for evaluating a global model', Martin Kalinowski, 19 Apr 2021
    • AC3: 'Reply on CC1', Kseniia Golubenko, 01 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2021-56', Anonymous Referee #2, 03 Jun 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Kseniia Golubenko, 01 Jul 2021

Kseniia Golubenko et al.

Kseniia Golubenko et al.


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Short summary
A new full 3D time-dependent model, based on SOCOL-AERv2, of beryllium atmospheric production, transport, and deposition has been developed and validated using directly measured data. The model is recommended to be used in studies related to, e.g., atmospheric dynamical patterns, extreme solar particle storms, long-term solar activity reconstruction from cosmogenic proxy data, solar-terrestrial relation.