Submitted as: model evaluation paper
28 Jan 2022
Submitted as: model evaluation paper | 28 Jan 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Assessment of the Paris urban heat island in ERA5 and offline SURFEX-TEB (v8.1) simulations using METEOSAT land surface temperature product

Miguel Nogueira1, Alexandra Hurduc1, Sofia Ermida1,2, Daniela C. A. Lima1, Pedro M. M. Soares1, Frederico Johannsen1, and Emanuel Dutra1,2 Miguel Nogueira et al.
  • 1Instituto Dom Luiz, IDL, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, IPMA, 1749-077 Lisbon, Portugal

Abstract. Cities concentrate people, wealth, emissions, and infrastructures, thus representing a challenge and an opportunity for climate change mitigation and adaptation. This places an urgent demand for accurate urban climate projections to help organizations and individuals making climate smart-decisions. However, most of the state-of-the-art global and regional climate models have an oversimplified representation of (or completely neglect) urban climate processes. Here, we use the city of Paris as a case study to show that this is the case for the fifth (and latest) generation reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA5) and for simulations employing the widely used bulk bare rock approach to urban climate parameterization. Subsequently, we leveraged on the hourly resolution of ERA5 and the Satellite Application Facility Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) land surface temperature product to demonstrate the significant added value of employing the SURFEX land-surface model coupled to Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy model in simulating the Parisian Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) during daytime and the urban heat island during both daytime and nighttime. Our results showed the significant added value of SURFEX-TEB in reproducing the observed daytime and nighttime Parisian urban heat island effect. An annual average bias magnitude reduction of 0.5 °C was observed for daytime and around 1.5 °C for nighttime when compared to ERA5 and bare rock approach. Also, SURFEX-TEB revealed an overall better performance in reproducing the observed daytime SUHI, whilst the added value of SURFEX-TEB was lower during nighttime (but still slightly better than ERA5 and the bare rock approach), due to the lack of land-atmosphere feedbacks in the proposed offline framework. Finally, the offline SURFEX-TEB framework applied here demonstrates the ability to simulate the urban climate, which is an asset to build urban climate projections that allow the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies.

Miguel Nogueira et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-431', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Feb 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2021-431', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Apr 2022

Miguel Nogueira et al.

Data sets

Assessment of the Paris urban heat island in ERA5 and offline SURFEX-TEB (v8.1) simulations using METEOSAT land surface temperature product Miguel Nogueira; Alexandra Hurduc; Sofia Ermida; Daniela CA Lima; Pedro MM Soares; Frederico Johannsen; Emanuel Dutra

Miguel Nogueira et al.


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Short summary
We evaluated the quality of the ERA-5 reanalysis representation of the urban heat island (UHI) over the city of Paris and performed a set of offline runs using the SURFEX land surface model. The SURFEX-TEB runs showed the best performance in representing the Urban Heat Island, reducing its bias significantly. We demonstrate the ability of the SURFEX-TEB framework to simulate urban climate, which is crucial for studying climate change in cities.