Submitted as: development and technical paper 01 Apr 2021

Submitted as: development and technical paper | 01 Apr 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Mineral dust cycle in the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (MONARCH) Version 2.0

Martina Klose1,a, Oriol Jorba1, María Gonçalves Ageitos1,2, Jeronimo Escribano1, Matthew L. Dawson1,3, Vincenzo Obiso1,4, Enza Di Tomaso1, Sara Basart1, Gilbert Montané Pinto1, Francesca Macchia1, Paul Ginoux5, Juan Guerschman6, Catherine Prigent7, Yue Huang8, Jasper F. Kok8, Ron L. Miller4, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando1,9 Martina Klose et al.
  • 1Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Barcelona, Spain
  • 2Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
  • 3National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA
  • 4NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), New York, NY, USA
  • 5Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton, NJ, USA
  • 6Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia
  • 7Observatoire de Paris, PSL University, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, LERMA, Paris, France
  • 8University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 9ICREA, Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona, Spain
  • apresent address: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-TRO), Department Troposphere Research, Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract. We present the dust module in the Multiscale Online Non-hydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (MONARCH) Version 2.0, a chemical weather prediction system that can be used for regional and global modeling at a range of resolutions. The representations of dust processes in MONARCH were upgraded with a focus on dust emission (emission parameterizations, entrainment thresholds, considerations of soil moisture and surface cover), lower boundary conditions (roughness, potential dust sources), and dust--radiation interactions. MONARCH now allows modeling of global and regional mineral dust cycles using fundamentally different paradigms, ranging from strongly simplified to physics-based parameterizations. We present a detailed description of these updates along with four global benchmark simulations, which use conceptually different dust emission parameterizations, and we evaluate the simulations against observations of dust optical depth. We determine key dust parameters, such as global annual emission/deposition flux, dust loading, dust optical depth, mass-extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, direct radiative effects. The total annual dust emission and deposition fluxes obtained with our four experiments, range between about 3,500 and 6,000 Tg, which largely depend upon differences in the emitted size distribution. Considering ellipsoidal particle shapes and dust refractive indices that account for size-resolved mineralogy, we estimate the global total (longwave and shortwave) dust direct radiative effect (DRE) at the surface to range between about −0.90 and −0.63 W m−2 and at the top of the atmosphere between −0.20 and −0.28 W m−2. Our evaluation demonstrates that MONARCH is able to reproduce key features of the spatio-temporal variability of the global dust cycle with important and insightful differences between the different configurations.

Martina Klose et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-32', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 May 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2021-32', Yves Balkanski, 12 May 2021
  • CEC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-32', Juan Antonio Añel, 17 May 2021

Martina Klose et al.

Martina Klose et al.


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Short summary
Mineral soil dust is a major atmospheric airborne particle type. We present and evaluate MONARCH, a model used for regional and global dust-weather prediction. An important feature of the model is that it allows different approximations to represent dust, ranging from more simplified to more complex treatments. Using these different treatments, MONARCH can help us better understand impacts of dust in the Earth system, such as its interactions with radiation.