Submitted as: development and technical paper 02 Nov 2021

Submitted as: development and technical paper | 02 Nov 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Implementation of an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ Model v5.1) for Data Assimilation of Ground-level PM2.5

Soon-Young Park1,2, Uzzal Kumar Dash1, Jinhyeok Yu1, Keiya Yumimoto3, Itsushi Uno3, and Chul Han Song1 Soon-Young Park et al.
  • 1School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 61005, Republic of Korea
  • 2Institute of Environmental Studies, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea
  • 3Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 816-8580, Japan

Abstract. In this study, we developed a data assimilation (DA) system for chemical transport model (CTM) simulations using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique. This DA technique is easy to implement to an existing system without seriously modifying the original CTM, and can provide flow-dependent corrections based on error covariance by short-term ensemble propagations. First, the PM2.5 observations at ground stations were assimilated in this DA system every 6 hours over South Korea for the period of the KORUS–AQ campaign, from 1 May to 12 June, 2016. The DA performances with the EnKF were then compared to a control run (CTR) without DA, as well as a run with three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) DA. Consistent improvements due to the ICs assimilated with the EnKF were found in the DA experiments with 6 h interval, compared to the CTR run, and to the run with 3DVAR. In addition, we attempted to assimilate the ground observations from China to examine the impacts of improved boundary concentrations (BCs) on the PM2.5 predictability over South Korea. The contributions of the ICs and BCs to improvements in the PM2.5 predictability were also quantified. For example, the relative reductions in terms of the normalized mean bias (NMB) were found to be about 27.2 % for the 6 h reanalysis run. A series of 24 hour PM2.5 predictions were additionally conducted each day at 00 UTC with the optimized initial concentrations (ICs). The relative reduction of the NMB was 17.3 % for the 24 h prediction run, when the updated ICs were applied at 00 UTC. This means that after the application of the updated BCs, an additional 9.0 % reduction in the NMB was achieved for 24 h PM2.5 predictions in South Korea.

Soon-Young Park et al.

Status: open (until 31 Dec 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-302', Anonymous Referee #1, 22 Nov 2021 reply

Soon-Young Park et al.

Soon-Young Park et al.


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Short summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation, and even superior to 3DVAR. The reduced MBs in 24-hour predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving I.C.s and B.C.s, respectively.