Submitted as: development and technical paper 02 Sep 2021

Submitted as: development and technical paper | 02 Sep 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Coupling a weather model directly to GNSS orbit determination

Angel Navarro Trastoy1, Sebastian Strasser2, Lauri Tuppi1, Maksym Vasiuta1, Markku Poutanen3, Torsten Mayer-Gürr2, and Heikki Järvinen1 Angel Navarro Trastoy et al.
  • 1Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Institute of Geodesy, Graz University of Technology, Austria
  • 3Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, National Land Survey of Finland

Abstract. Neutral atmosphere bends and delays propagation of microwave signals in satellite-based navigation. Weather prediction models can be used to estimate these effects by providing 3-dimensional refraction fields to estimate signal delay in the zenith direction and determine a low-dimensional mapping of this delay to desired azimuth and elevation angles. In this study, a global numerical weather prediction model (OpenIFS licensed for Academic use by ECMWF) is used to generate the refraction fields. The ray-traced slant delays are supplied as such – in contrast to mapping – for an orbit solver (GROOPS software toolkit of TUG) which applies the raw observation method. Here we show that such a close coupling is possible without need for major additional modifications in the solver codes. The main finding here is that the adopted approach provides a very good a priori model for the atmospheric effects on navigation signals, as measured with the midnight discontinuity of GNSS satellite orbits. Our interpretation is that removal of the intermediate mapping step allows to take advantage of the local refraction field asymmetries in the GNSS signal processing. Moreover, the direct coupling helps in identifying deficiencies in the slant delay computation because the modelling errors are not convoluted in the precision-reducing mapping. These conclusions appear robust, despite the relatively small data set of raw code and phase observations covering the core network of 66 ground-based stations of the International GNSS Service over one-month periods in December 2016 and June 2017. More generally, the new configuration enhances our control of geodetic and meteorological aspects of the orbit problem. This is pleasant because we can, for instance, regulate at will the weather model output frequency and increase coverage of spatio-temporal aspects of weather variations. The direct coupling of a weather model in precise GNSS orbit determination presented in this paper provides a unique framework for benefiting even more widely than previously the apparent synergies in space geodesy and meteorology.

Angel Navarro Trastoy et al.

Status: open (extended)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • CEC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-246', Astrid Kerkweg, 04 Oct 2021 reply
    • AC1: 'Reply on CEC1', Angel Navarro Trastoy, 16 Nov 2021 reply
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-246', Anonymous Referee #1, 06 Jan 2022 reply

Angel Navarro Trastoy et al.

Angel Navarro Trastoy et al.


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Short summary
Production of satellite products rely on information from different centers. By coupling a weather model and an orbit determination solver we eliminate the dependence on one of the centers. The coupling has proven to be possible in the first stage, where no formatting has been applied to any of the models involved. This opens a window for further development and improvement to a coupling that has proven to be as good as the predecessor model.