Submitted as: development and technical paper 02 Jun 2021

Submitted as: development and technical paper | 02 Jun 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Realistic modelling of faults in LoopStructural 1.0

Lachlan Grose1, Laurent Ailleres1, Gautier Laurent2, Guillaume Caumon4, Mark Jessell3, and Robin Armit1 Lachlan Grose et al.
  • 1School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University PO Box 28E, Victoria, Australia
  • 2Université d’Orléans, CNRS, BRGM, ISTO, UMR 7327, Orleans France
  • 3The University of Western Australia, Centre for Exploration Targeting, School of Earth and Environment, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 4Université de Lorraine, CNRS, GeoRessources, F- 54000 Nancy, France

Abstract. Without properly accounting for both fault kinematics and faulted surface observations, it is challenging to create 3D geological models of faulted geological units that are seen in all tectonic settings. Geometries where multiple faults interact, where the faulted surface geometry significantly deviate from a flat plane and where the geological interfaces are poorly characterised by sparse data sets are particular challenges. There are two existing approaches for incorporating faults into geological surface modelling: one approach incorporates the fault displacement into the surface description but does not incorporate fault kinematics and in most cases will produce geologically unexpected results such as shrinking intrusions, fold hinges without offset and layer thickness growth in flat oblique faults. Another approach builds a continuous surface without faulting and then applies a kinematic fault operator to the continuous surface to create the displacement. Both approaches have their strengths, however neither approach can capture the interaction of faults within complicated fault networks e.g fault duplexes, flower structures and listric faults because they either \begin{inparaenum}[(1)] \item impose an incorrect (not defined by data) fault slip direction; or \item require an over sampled data set that describes the faulted surface location\end{inparaenum}. In this study we integrate the fault kinematics into the implicit surface by using the fault kinematic model to restore observations and the model domain prior to interpolating the faulted surface. This approach can build models that are consistent with observations of the faulted surface and fault kinematics. Integrating fault kinematics directly into the implicit surface description allows for complex fault stratigraphy and fault-fault interactions to be modelled. Our approaches show significant improvement in capturing faulted surface geometries especially where the intersection angle between the faulted surface geometry and the fault surface varies (e.g. intrusions, fold series) and when modelling interacting faults (fault duplex).

Lachlan Grose et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-112', Italo Goncalves, 05 Jun 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on gmd-2021-112', Patrice Rey, 19 Jun 2021
  • CEC1: 'Comment on gmd-2021-112', Juan Antonio Añel, 30 Jun 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on CEC1', Lachlan Grose, 02 Jul 2021
  • AC2: 'Response to reviewers', Lachlan Grose, 03 Aug 2021

Lachlan Grose et al.

Lachlan Grose et al.


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Short summary
Faults discontinuities in rock packages that represent the plane where two blocks of rock have moved. They are challenging to incorporate into geological models because the geometry of the faulted rock units are defined by not only the location of the discontinuity but also the kinematics of the fault. In this paper, we outline a structural geology framework for incorporating faults into geological models by directly incorporating kinematics into the mathematical framework of the model.