Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 5.240
IF5.240
IF 5-year value: 5.768
IF 5-year
5.768
CiteScore value: 8.9
CiteScore
8.9
SNIP value: 1.713
SNIP1.713
IPP value: 5.53
IPP5.53
SJR value: 3.18
SJR3.18
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 71
Scimago H
index
71
h5-index value: 51
h5-index51
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2020-77
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2020-77
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: model description paper 14 May 2020

Submitted as: model description paper | 14 May 2020

Review status
A revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal GMD and is expected to appear here in due course.

The Kinetic Energy Budget of the Atmosphere (KEBA) model 1.0: A simple yet physical approach for estimating regional wind energy resource potentials that includes the kinetic energy removal effect by wind turbines

Axel Kleidon1 and Lee M. Miller2 Axel Kleidon and Lee M. Miller
  • 1Biospheric Theory and Modelling Group, Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie, Jena, Germany
  • 2Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA, USA

Abstract. With the current expansion of wind power as a renewable energy source, wind turbines increasingly extract kinetic energy from the atmosphere, thus impacting its energy resource. Here we present a simple, physics-based model (KEBA) to estimate wind energy resource potentials that explicitly account for this removal effect. The model is based on the regional kinetic energy budget of the atmospheric boundary layer that encloses the wind farms of a region. This budget is shaped by horizontal and vertical influx of kinetic energy from upwind regions and the free atmosphere above as well as the energy removal by the turbines, dissipative losses due to surface friction and wakes, and downwind outflux. These terms can be formulated in a simple, yet physical way, yielding analytic expressions for how wind speeds and energy yields are reduced with increasing deployment of wind turbines within a region. We show that KEBA estimates compare very well to the modelling results of a previously published study in which wind farms of different sizes and in different regions were simulated interactively with the WRF atmospheric model. Compared to a reference case without the effect of reduced wind speeds, yields can drop by more than 50 % at scales greater than 100 km, depending on turbine spacing and the wind conditions of the region. KEBA is able to reproduce these reductions in energy yield compared to the simulated climatological means in WRF (n = 36 simulations; r2 = 0.822). The kinetic energy flux diagnostics of KEBA show that this reduction occurs because the total yield of the simulated wind farms approaches a similar magnitude as the influx of kinetic energy. Additionally, KEBA estimates the slowing of the region's wind speeds, the associated reduction in electricity yields, and how both are due to the depletion of the horizontal influx of kinetic energy by the wind farms. This limits typical large-scale wind energy potentials to less than 1 W m−2 of surface area for wind farms with downwind lengths of more than 100 km, although this limit may be higher in windy regions. This reduction with downwind length makes these yields consistent with GCM-based idealized simulations of large-scale wind energy resource potentials. We conclude that KEBA is a transparent and informative modelling approach to advance the scientific understanding of wind energy limits, and can be used to estimate regional wind energy resource potentials that account for the depletion of wind speeds.

Axel Kleidon and Lee M. Miller

Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Interactive discussion

Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Axel Kleidon and Lee M. Miller

Model code and software

The Kinetic Energy Budget of the Atmosphere (KEBA) model 1.0 A. Kleidon and L. M. Miller https://doi.org/10.17617/3.3w

Axel Kleidon and Lee M. Miller

Viewed

Total article views: 434 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
320 79 35 434 23 19 29
  • HTML: 320
  • PDF: 79
  • XML: 35
  • Total: 434
  • Supplement: 23
  • BibTeX: 19
  • EndNote: 29
Views and downloads (calculated since 14 May 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 14 May 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 343 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 343 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Cited

Saved

No saved metrics found.

Discussed

No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 19 Oct 2020
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
When winds are used as renewable energy by more and more wind turbines, one needs to account for the effect of wind turbines on the atmospheric flow. The Kinetic Energy Budget of the Atmosphere (KEBA) model provides a simple, physics-based approach to account for this effect very well when compared to much more detailed numerical simulations with an atmospheric model. KEBA should be useful to derive lower, more realistic wind energy resource potentials of different regions.
When winds are used as renewable energy by more and more wind turbines, one needs to account for...
Citation