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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  17 Jul 2020

17 Jul 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

In-cloud scavenging scheme for aerosol modules

Eemeli Holopainen1, Harri Kokkola1, Anton Laakso1, and Thomas Kühn1,2 Eemeli Holopainen et al.
  • 1Atmospheric Research Centre of Eastern Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • 2Aerosol Physics Research Group, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland

Abstract. In this study we introduce an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol-climate models which use a size-segregated aerosol description. For in-cloud nucleation scavenging, the scheme uses cloud droplet activation and ice nucleation rates obtained from the host model. For in-cloud impaction scavenging, we used a method where the removal rate depends on the aerosol size and cloud droplet radii. The scheme was compared to a scheme that uses fixed scavenging coefficients. The comparison included vertical profiles and mass and number distributions of wet deposition fluxes of different aerosol compounds and for different latitude bands. Using the scheme presented here, mass concentrations for black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and the number concentration of particles with diameters larger than 100 nm are higher than using fixed scavenging coefficients, with the largest differences in the vertical profiles in the Arctic. On the other hand, the number concentrations of small particles show a decrease, especially in the Arctic region. These results indicate that, compared to using fixed scavenging coefficients, nucleation scavenging is less efficient and impaction scavenging is increased in the scheme introduced here. Without further adjustments in the host model, our wet deposition scheme produced unrealistically high aerosol concentrations, especially at high altitudes. This also leads to a spuriously long lifetime of black carbon aerosol. To find a better setup for simulating aerosol vertical profiles and transport, sensitivity simulations were conducted where aerosol emission distribution and hygroscopicity were altered. The simulated vertical profiles of aerosol in these sensitivity studies were evaluated against aircraft observations. The lifetimes of different aerosol compounds were also evaluated against the ensemble mean of models involved in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AEROCOM) project. The best comparison between the observations and the model was achieved with the new wet deposition scheme when black carbon was emitted internally mixed with soluble compounds instead of keeping it externally mixed. This also produced atmospheric lifetimes for the other species which were comparable to the AEROCOM model means.

Eemeli Holopainen et al.

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Eemeli Holopainen et al.

Data sets

In-cloud scavenging scheme for aerosol modules 2019-2020 data Eemeli Holopainen, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, and Thomas Kühn

ATom: Merged Atmospheric Chemistry, Trace Gases, and Aerosols S. C. Wofsy, S. Afshar, H. M. Allen, E. C. Apel, E. C. Asher, B. Barletta, J. Bent, H. Bian, B. C. Biggs, D. R. Blake, N. Blake, I. Bourgeois, C. A. Brock, W. H. Brune, J. W. Budney, T. P. Bui, A. Butler, P. Campuzano-Jost, C. S. Chang, M. Chin, R. Commane, G. Correa, J. D. Crounse, P. D. Cullis, B. C. Daube, D. A. Day, J. M. Dean-Day, J. E. Dibb, J. P. DiGangi, G. S. Diskin, M. Dollner, J. W. Elkins, F. Erdesz, A. M. Fiore, C. M. Flynn, K. D. Froyd, D. W. Gesler, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, R. A. Hannun, A. J. Hills, E. J. Hintsa, A. Hoffman, R. S. Hornbrook, L. G. Huey, S. Hughes, J. L. Jimenez, B. J. Johnson, J. M. Katich, R. F. Keeling, M. J. Kim, A. Kupc, L. R. Lait, J.-F. Lamarque, J. Liu, K. McKain, R. J. Mclaughlin, S. Meinardi, D.O. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. L. Moore, E. J. Morgan, D. M. Murphy, L. T. Murray, B. A. Nault, J. A. Neuman, P. A. Newman, J. M. Nicely, X. Pan, W. Paplawsky, J. Peischl, M. J. Prather, D. J. Price, E. Ray, J.M. Reeves, M. Richardson, A. W. Rollins, K. H. Rosenlof, T. B. Ryerson, E. Scheuer, G. P. Schill, J. C. Schroder, J.P. Schwarz, J. M. St.Clair, S. D. Steenrod, B. B. Stephens, S. A. Strode, C. Sweeney, D. Tanner, A. P. Teng, A. B. Thames, C. R. Thompson, K. Ullmann, P. R. Veres, N. Vieznor, N. L. Wagner, A. Watt, R. Weber, B. Weinzierl, P. . Wennberg, C. J. Williamson, J. C. Wilson, G. M. Wolfe, C. T. Woods, and L. H. Zeng

Model code and software

SALSA standalone 2.0 H. Kokkola, J. Tonttila, S. Romakkaniemi, T. Bergman, A. Laakso, T. Kühn, T. Mielonen, I. Kudzotsa, and T. Raatikainen

Eemeli Holopainen et al.


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Short summary
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol-climate models. With default setup, our wet deposition scheme behaves spuriously and more better representation can be achieved, with this scheme, when black carbon is mixed with soluble compounds at emission time. This work is done as many of the global models fail to reproduce the transport of black carbon to the Arctic which can be due to poor representation of wet removal in models.
This paper introduces an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for...