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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: development and technical paper 21 Feb 2020

Submitted as: development and technical paper | 21 Feb 2020

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A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Optimizing High-Resolution Community Earth System Model on a Heterogeneous Many-Core Supercomputing Platform (CESM-HR_sw1.0)

Shaoqing Zhang1,4,5, Haohuan Fu2,3,1, Lixin Wu4,5, Yuxuan Li6, Hong Wang1,4,5, Yunhui Zeng7, Xiaohui Duan3,8, Wubing Wan3, Li Wang7, Yuan Zhuang7, Hongsong Meng3, Kai Xu3,8, Ping Xu3,6, Lin Gan3,6, Zhao Liu3,6, Sihai Wu3, Yuhu Cheng9, Haining Yu3, Shupeng Shi3, Lanning Wang3,10, Shiming Xu2, Wei Xue3,6, Weiguo Liu3,8, Qiang Guo7, Jie Zhang7, Guanghui Zhu7, Yang Tu7, Jim Edwards1,11, Allison Baker1,11, Jianlin Yong5, Man Yuan5, Yangyang Yu5, Qiuying Zhang1,12, Zedong Liu9, Mingkui Li1,4,5, Dongning Jia9, Guangwen Yang1,3,6, Zhiqiang Wei9, Jingshan Pan7, Ping Chang1,12, Gokhan Danabasoglu1,11, Stephen Yeager1,11, Nan Rosenbloom1,11, and Ying Guo7 Shaoqing Zhang et al.
  • 1International Laboratory for High-Resolution Earth System Model and Prediction (iHESP), Qingdao, China
  • 2Ministry of Education Key Lab. for Earth System Modeling, and Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  • 3National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, Wuxi, China
  • 4Laboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, Qingdao Pilot NationalLaboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China
  • 5Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography, the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences & Institute for Advanced Ocean Study, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
  • 6Department of Computer Science & Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  • 7Computer Science Center & National Supercomputer Center in Jinan, Jinan, China
  • 8School of Software, Shandong University, Jinan, China
  • 9Dept. of Supercomputing, Qingdao Pilot National Laboratoryfor Marine Science and Technology,Qingdao, China
  • 10College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
  • 11National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 12Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

Abstract. With the semi-conductor technology gradually approaching its physical and heat limits, recent supercomputers have adopted major architectural changes to continue increasing the performance through more power-efficient heterogeneous many-core systems. Examples include Sunway TaihuLight that has four Management Processing Element (MPE) and 256 Computing Processing Element (CPE) inside one processor and Summit that has two central processing units (CPUs) and 6 graphics processing units (GPUs) inside one node. Meanwhile, current high-resolution Earth system models that desperately require more computing power, generally consist of millions of lines of legacy codes developed for traditional homogeneous multi-core processors and cannot automatically benefit from the advancement of supercomputer hardware. As a result, refactoring and optimizing the legacy models for new architectures become a key challenge along the road of taking advantage of greener and faster supercomputers, providing better support for the global climate research community and contributing to the long-lasting society task of addressing long-term climate change. This article reports the efforts of a large group in the International Laboratory for High-Resolution Earth System Prediction (iHESP) established by the cooperation of Qingdao Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (QNLM), Texas A & M University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with the goal of enabling highly efficient simulations of the high-resolution (25-km atmosphere and 10-km ocean) Community Earth System Model (CESM-HR) on Sunway TaihuLight. The refactoring and optimizing efforts have improved the simulation speed of CESM-HR from 1 SYPD (simulation years per day) to 3.4 SYPD (with output disabled), and supported several hundred years of pre-industrial control simulations. With further strategies on deeper refactoring and optimizing for a few remaining computing hot spots, we expect an equivalent or even better efficiency than homogeneous CPU platforms. The refactoring and optimizing processes detailed in this paper on the Sunway system should have implications to similar efforts on other heterogeneous many-core systems such as GPU-based high-performance computing (HPC) systems.

Shaoqing Zhang et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Shaoqing Zhang et al.

Model code and software

lgan/cesm_sw_1.0.1: Some efforts on refactoring and optimizing the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.3.1) on the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer (Version cesm_sw_1.0.1) Ruo

Shaoqing Zhang et al.


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Latest update: 08 Jul 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Science advancement and societal needs require Earth system modeling with higher resolution that demands tremendous computing power. This work successfully scales the 10 km ocean and 25km atmosphere high-resolution Earth system model to a new leading-edge heterogeneous supercomputer using state-of-the-art optimizing methods, promising the solution of high space resolution and time-varying frequency. Corresponding technical breakthroughs are of significance in modeling and HPC design communities.
Science advancement and societal needs require Earth system modeling with higher resolution that...