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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: model description paper 10 Feb 2020

Submitted as: model description paper | 10 Feb 2020

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A revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM2 – Evaluation of theCMIP6 DECK and historical simulations

Øyvind Seland1, Mats Bentsen2, Lise Seland Graff1, Dirk Olivié1, Thomas Toniazzo2,6, Ada Gjermundsen1, Jens Boldingh Debernard1, Alok Kumar Gupta2, Yanchun He3, Alf Kirkevåg1, Jörg Schwinger2, Jerry Tjiputra2, Kjetil Schancke Aas4, Ingo Bethke5, Yuanchao Fan2, Jan Griesfeller1, Alf Grini1, Chuncheng Guo2, Mehmet Ilicak2,7, Inger Helene Hafsahl Karset4, Oskar Landgren1, Johan Liakka3, Kine Onsum Moseid1, Aleksi Nummelin2, Clemens Spensberger5, Hui Tang4, Zhongshi Zhang2, Christoph Heinze5, Trond Iverson1,4, and Michael Schulz1,4 Øyvind Seland et al.
  • 1Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
  • 2Norwegian Research Centre and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 3Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway
  • 4University of Oslo, Department of Geosciences, Oslo, Norway
  • 5Geophysical Institute, University in Bergen, and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 6Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 7Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract. The second version of the fully coupled Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2) is presented and evaluated. NorESM2 is based on the second version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM2), but has entirely different ocean and ocean biogeochemistry models; a new module for aerosols in the atmosphere model along with aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions and changes related to the moist energy formulation, deep convection scheme and angular momentum conservation; modified albedo and air-sea turbulent flux calculations; and minor changes to land and sea ice models. We show results from low (∼2°) and medium (∼1°) atmosphere-land resolution versions of NorESM2 that have both been used to carry out simulations for the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). The stability of the pre-industrial climate and the sensitivity of the model to abrupt and gradual quadrupling of CO2 is assessed, along with the ability of the model to simulate the historical climate under the CMIP6 forcings. As compared to observations and reanalyses, NorESM2 represents an improvement over previous versions of NorESM in most aspects. NorESM2 is less sensitive to greenhouse gas forcing than its predecessors, with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 2.5 K in both resolutions on a 150 year frame. We also consider the model response to future scenarios as defined by selected shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) from the Scenario Model Intercomparison Project defined under CMIP6. Under the four scenarios SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5, the warming in the period 2090–2099 compared to 1850–1879 reaches 1.3, 2.2, 3.0, and 3.9 K in NorESM2-LM, and 1.3, 2.1, 3.1, and 3.9 K in NorESM–MM, robustly similar in both resolutions. NorESM2-LM shows a rather satisfactorily evolution of recent sea ice area. In NorESM2-LM an ice free Arctic Ocean is only avoided in the SSP1-2.6 scenario.

Øyvind Seland et al.

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Øyvind Seland et al.

Øyvind Seland et al.


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